The development and dissemination of this annotated Resource Bibliography on Working Effectively with Limited English Proficient Students with Interrupted Formal Education (Winter, 1996) has been made possible by the support and funding of the New York State Education Department, Office of Bilingual Education, under the aegis of Carmen A. Perez Hogan.

Dr. Nancy Cloud of Hofstra University is the principal researcher and writer, whose broad understanding of the issues involved in educating these students has given this document its shape and focus. As the dialogue with educators evolves, additional resources will be identified and incorporated into the document.

Ellie Paiewonsky, Coordinator of the Board of Cooperative Educational Services of Nassau County (BOCES) Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center (BETAC), coordinated the design and production of this document.

Rose Hernandez, of the Nassau BOCES Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center (BETAC), has been responsible for word-processing components of this document.

Special thanks to the Nassau BOCES Graphics Department artist Gary Murtagh for the cover design of this document and to Leonard Gore for its publication and duplication.

Marilyn Bach, Bilingual/ESL Staff Development Specialist, Office of the Superintendent of Bronx High Schools did preliminary research and identified articles which assisted in formulating the design of this bibliography.


This annotated Resource Bibliography on Working Effectively with Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students with Interrupted Formal Education has been written to provide educators an informational and conceptual, research-based foundation for addressing the multidimensional and diverse challenges confronting this student population as they negotiate the New York State Learning Standards.

These students, often described as "over-age", enter the New York State educational system at varying ages, grades and possessing different levels of academic preparation. They have limited or no literacy in their native language or in English, and often have difficulty in reaching their potential as a consequence of not having received the breadth of educational preparation afforded by continuous formal schooling. Moreover, they have not yet acquired the academic skills which are associated with their grade level.

Some school districts have begun to create programmatic options designed to meet the unique needs of these students. Nevertheless, there is still a need to standardize definitions and to identify as well as validate promising practices which will activate the potential that these students possess.

This resource bibliography identifies areas of inquiry which should serve as the axis for a dialogue dedicated to reaching an understanding about the most meaningful instructional strategies and program designs capable of optimizing the learning experiences of this student population. This process will involve examining the strengths of these students, profiling their educational characteristics and identifying resources to enhance their academic success.

As this annotated bibliography creates a focal point for discussion and reflection, it should also catalyze a series of articulated strategies which will facilitate the academic and linguistic growth of these students, consonant with the New York State Learning Standards and the Regents Proposed Action Plan for Bilingual Education. We hope that our mutually supportive efforts will stimulate the design of those technical assistance strategies which will support educators in fulfilling their mission of promoting excellence through strategic planning.

In examining numerous data bases, Dr. Nancy Cloud of Hofstra University, the principal researcher and author of this annotated bibliography, noted that much of the resource literature pertaining to this student population alludes to the following topics: (l) background information relating to needs and characteristics of "over-age" students; (2) model programs and assumptions about instruction; (3) actual instruction; (4) instructional strategies and activities used; and, (5) resource documents as well as professional organizations which have chosen this group as a thematic focus of their investigative efforts.

As this is a growing population, challenging the resources of our school districts, it is essential that we secure accurate and sufficient background information which will inform formulation of policy and new instructional approaches in the years to come.

Any comments about the content of this document or its present format will be most appreciated, as will any experiences that you can share with us about the strategies which you have found useful or promising.

Please send all comments to:
Ellie Paiewonsky
Nassau Board of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES)
Bilingual/ESL Technical Assistance Center (BETAC)
2165 Seaford Avenue Ě Seaford Ě New York 11783

Telephone: (516) 826 - 2268 Ě Fax: (516) 826-6906





I. BACKGROUND INFORMATION (Needs, Characteristics)

Council of Chief State School Officers, Resource Center on Educational Equity (1993, July). A concern about...Limited English proficient students in intermediate schools and in high schools. Concerns, XXXX, p. 1-7. [ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364 111].

­ Talks about at-risk status of LEP adolescents in middle and high schools. Presents the results of a 1992 telephone survey of 33 SEA Bilingual Education Directors in 32 states and a follow up study conducted one year later.

­ Documents issues of concern as the following:

--access to core-content curriculum (need for sheltered and L1 classes; problems with unmodified English medium content classes).

--instructional models for students lacking literacy in their native language (the need to develop basic literacy skills)

--LEP students in rural areas (lack of services)

--counseling services (shortage of bilingual counselors, lack of training for monolingual counselors, poor advice and lack of support given to LEP adolescents)

--instructional materials (few L1 texts and other instructional materials at the secondary level)

--ESL instructional methodology (overuse of grammar/structural approaches and the need for content-based ESL).

­ Lists promising practices identified by state directors (e.g. greater use of interactive technology, use of team teaching approaches, more emphasis on teacher training, etc.).

McPartland, J.& Braddock II, J.H. (1992, August). A Conceptual Framework on Learning Environments and Student Motivation for Language Minority and Other Underserved Populations. Paper presented at the National Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient Student Issues: Focus on Middle and High School Issues, Washington, DC. [Available through the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.]

­ Describes learning environments that support student motivation, including: opportunities for success, relevance of school work, a caring and supportive human environment, and help with personal problems. Figures aid in illustrating these key concepts.

­ Argues for early prevention, beginning in middle school. Suggests ways that schools can enhance the four motivational sources through specific changes in school organization, curriculum, and instructional practice, informed by research and development in the area of effective schooling.

­ An extensive list of references is appended.

Schlosser, L. K. (1992, March-April). Teacher distance and student disengagement: School lives on the margin. Journal of Teacher Education, 43 (2), 128-140.

­ reviews literature on student marginality, alienation and disengagement. Documents marginal students' perceptions of school, beliefs about teachers and beliefs about school success, as well as teachers' beliefs about marginal students.

­ describes characteristics of low, moderate and high-impact teachers (teachers with greatest success with marginal students).

High impact teachers created warm, personal learning environments (high levels of acceptance by teachers and peers) where students' outside lives were connected with classroom curriculum and where both structure and independence were fostered.

­ argues for personalized learning environments and the explicit, systematic teaching of skills needed to improve student achievement.

Smey-Richman, B. (1991). At-risk, low-achieving students: Characteristics and instructional implications. Equity and Excellence, 25(1), 25-29.

­ Provides research findings on the characteristics of at-risk, low-achieving students.

­ Discusses instructional implications related to improving metacognition and involvement in learning and the importance of the affective domain to the success of these students.

­ In addition to classroom practices designed to improve the task performance and success-orientation of at-risk students, suggests that teacher expectations, cooperative goal structures and a school climate focused on academic excellence are also critical to the learning success of low performing students.

Tellez, K. and Walker de Felix, J. (1993, April). Are dropouts really dropouts? An analysis of pre-literate Latino adolescents. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA. [ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 367 730]

­ concerns a study conducted with low literacy Latino youth (ages 13-18) in Houston, TX where the experimental group received a course in functional Spanish (to develop literacy in L1) as well as courses in mathematics and science in sheltered ESL format or in Spanish. Controls received only ESL and remedial math and science in English. No significant differences were found in the achievement of the two groups.

­ However, in the context of the above study, the authors documented that preliterate Latinos actually had a lower dropout rate than the Latino population at large; showing that low literacy is not related to dropping out as previous researchers have claimed. The researchers instead suspect a relationship between low attendance (alienation, disempowerment) and dropping out.

See also U.S. General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters (July, 1994). Hispanics' Schooling: Risk Factors for Dropping Out and Barriers to Resuming Education. GAO/PEMD-94-24, 40 pp.


Newcomer Programs

Chang, H. N. (1990). Newcomer programs: Innovative efforts to meet the educational challenges of immigrant students. San Francisco, CA: California Tomorrow.

­ Provides the rationale for Newcomer Programs: to respond to the needs of students with little schooling, educational interruption, trauma, and extreme culture shock.

­ Describes the program designs and policies in use in California districts with Newcomer Programs, including the districts' intake criteria, program structure, exit policies, class size, curricula, and policies regarding language of instruction, teacher selection, staff development and program evaluation.

Constantino, R. and Lavadenz, M. (1993, Fall). Newcomer Schools: First impressions. Peabody Journal of Education, 69 (1), 82-101.

­ Describes newcomers as those with limited English proficiency, little experience with the American school system, lack of academic preparation, and those who have experienced psychological and emotional trauma.

­ Three models of Newcomer Schools are described. Focuses on instructional practices in four newcomer classrooms in California. Each classroom described is critically analyzed according to the authors' stated principles of effective instruction for language minority students, including:

--language authenticity

--use of the primary language, and

--effective instructional practices (L2 and content area instruction)

Friedlander, M. (1991, Fall). The Newcomer Program: Helping immigrant students succeed in U.S. Schools. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

­ Describes the challenge of educating newly-arrived immigrant students with no or low literacy.

­ Gives a description of the goals, key features and benefits of Newcomer Programs. Provides the history and geographical distribution of Newcomer programs as well as explaining how students are identified, placed and served in such programs.

­ Describes the program components, curriculum, methods and services used by Newcomer Programs, as well as provide illustrative examples of three schools that offer Newcomer Programs; two in California and one in New York.

­ The document ends with a 1990 ruling by the Office for Civil Rights regarding the legality of offering Newcomer Programs (due to the segregation of students in such programs). A Checklist of considerations in developing a Newcomer Program is appended.

Gonzalez, R.M. (1992, August). Title VII NewComers Program, 1991-92 Final Report. Austin TX: Austin Independent School District; Texas Office of Research and Evaluation. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 821.

­ Describes a three-year Title VII High School Project for students ages 14-20, 68% of whom were Spanish-speaking and all of whom were in the U.S. one year or less, had limited or interrupted schooling in their home countries and were overage for their grade. A wide range of literacy skills was present in the target student group.

­ The program included intensive ESOL (computer-based), correlated Language Arts and Reading Improvement classes. In addition to the ESOL and language instruction delivered by a teacher and a teacher assistant (the role of the assistant is carefully defined), the program also provided students with an orientation to the U.S., counseling support from a bilingual psychologist, staff development and outreach to parents.

­ Provides a demographic profile of particular students and program outcomes/results.

Other Model Programs

Minicucci, C. & Olsen, L. (1992, Spring). Programs for secondary limited English proficient students: A California Study. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

­ After describing the demographic picture in California and special pressures on secondary students, the document describes a survey conducted in California to document service delivery to secondary LEP students.

­ Four models are described: Sheltered English Only, Native Language, Native Language combined with Sheltered English and Mainstream Placement. Survey results are presented, summarizing program types in operation in California at the time of the study.

­ Current practices with regard to placement, tracking, grade level coverage, content teaching approaches, curriculum coverage, district leadership, site leadership, staff availability, teacher willingness, and school structure are detailed, based on the survey findings. Conclusions and recommendations are provided at the end of the document.

Montecel, M. R., Supik, J. D. and Montemayor, A. (1994). Valued youth program: Dropout prevention strategies for at-risk youth. In L.M. Malave (Ed.), National Association for Bilingual Education, Annual Conference Journal, NABE '92-'93 (pp. 65-80). Washington, DC: National Association for Bilingual Education.

­ Describes a National Research and Demonstration Project begun in San Antonio, Texas by the Intercultural Development Research Association [IDRA]). The project centers around the provision of cross-age tutoring which has been proven to reduce dropout rates, improve grades, self-esteem and attendance.

­ Specifies critical program elements of the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Intervention Model, as well as the underlying tenets and goals of the program.

­ Defines "at-risk" student characteristics as students below grade level in reading, students with high absenteeism and disciplinary action rates; and those who are LEP, minority and poor.

­ Evaluation results regarding program effectiveness are detailed.

[See also the Information Packet on the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program available through IDRA, 5835 Callaghan, Suite 350, San Antonio, TX 78228-1190 or by calling (210) 684-8180; FAX (210) 684-5389. Contains a 28-page booklet outlining program features and contact persons who can assist with program replication, as well as various flyers and press releases.]

Slavin, R. E. and Yampolsky, R. (1992, March). Success for All: Effects on students with limited English proficiency: A three-year evaluation. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students; The John Hopkins University (Report No. 29).

­ Describes the Success for All Program, a K-3 ESL Program in a K-8 School where 62% of students were Cambodians. The intervention offered consisted of providing reading tutors, the STar (Story Telling and Retelling) Program and the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Program.

­ The report details the instructional models in use for reading and ESL, as well as the curriculum, staffing, staff development and evaluation results of the Success for All project.

Vaznaugh, A. (1995, March). Dropout Intervention and Language Minority Youth. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.

­ Describes the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program, Project Adelante and The California Partnership Academies; three programs designed to support school completion for students at risk of dropping out.

­ Concludes with a listing of the needed components of successful programs as well as names and addresses of the program contacts for the programs described in the Digest.

See Also: Waxman, H.C., De Feliz, J.W., Anderson, J.E. & Baptiste, H.P., Jr. (1992). Students at Risk in At-risk Schools: Improving environments for learning. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.



Garcia, E .E. (1991). The education of linguistically and culturally diverse students: Effective instructional practices. Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, University of California, Santa Cruz.

­ Identifies common attributes in effective academic environments for linguistically and culturally diverse students: High levels of communication (between teachers and students and among students), use of integrated and thematic curriculum, focus on collaborative learning approaches, carefully structured language and literacy development, positive teacher expectations, supportive administrators and high levels of parental satisfaction.

­ Implications for programs are discussed.

Henze, R. C. and Lucas, T. (1993, Fall). Shaping instruction to promote the success of language minority students: An analysis of four high school classes. Peabody Journal of Education, 69 (1), 54-81.

­ Identifies features of secondary schools that promote the achievement of Latino language minority students. Specifies 5 qualities of effective teachers and classes for language minority students: 1) high expectations, 2) language development , 3) content knowledge, 4) student involvement and engagement (active learning), and 5) self-esteem.

­ Discusses four exemplary secondary classes (geometry, biology in L1, Life Sciences in L2, ESL) in accordance with these instructional features. Ends with principles of instruction related to each of the five instructional aspects identified as effective.

Mielke, A. and Flores, C. (1994). Bilingual technology equalizes opportunities in elementary classrooms. In L.M. Malave (Ed.), National Association for Bilingual Education Annual Conference Journal, NABE '92-'93, (pp. 81-92). Washington, DC: National Association for Bilingual Education.

­ After an introduction discussing the rationale for bilingual education programs, argues for the use of technology in promoting the achievement of LEP students; including computers, CD ROM and videodisk players. Discusses various materials that can be used in elementary bilingual programs to promote academic achievement, the learning of English, to incorporate language and culture and increase parent involvement. Implementation concerns are also discussed.

Norris, C.A. (1994, February). Computing and the classroom: Teaching the at-risk student. The Computing Teacher, 21(5), 12-14.

­ Promotes the use of individualized instruction and discusses ways that technology can assist in this effort.

­ Advocates collaborative learning, peer tutoring, parental involvement, and teaching across the curriculum as promising approaches for at-risk learners.

­ Describes "essential education" as student instruction that is critical or essential for that student's success both in and out of school and advocates for such instruction to characterize programs offered to at-risk students.

Literacy Instruction

Boyle O.F. & Peregoy, S.F. (1990). Literacy scaffolds: Strategies for first-and second-language readers and writers. The Reading Teacher, 44 (3), 194-199.

­ Defines scaffolding and gives examples of scaffolded instruction. Discusses the relationship of scaffolding to whole language instruction.

­ Compares reading and writing processing for first and second language learners.

­ After providing five characteristics of literacy scaffolds, gives examples of literacy scaffolds that make use of sentence and discourse patterns. Also advocates story mapping.

Echevarria, J. (1994, April). Altering teacher discourse style to match the needs of Spanish-speaking students in special education. Unpublished paper. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 371 532.

­ Describes a study with 7 and 8 year old Spanish speakers with special education needs which compared traditional instruction (basal approach) with the Instructional Conversations (IC) approach to reading instruction. The IC approach is one in which students are engaged in interactions which promote analysis, reflection and critical thinking). The positive effects of the latter approach are noted.

­ Outlines the instructional elements of IC as: 1) thematic focus, 2) activation and use of background knowledge and relevant schemata, 3) direct teaching, 4) promotion of more complex language and expression, 5) elicitation of the basis for statements or positions, 6) few "known-answer" questions, 7) responsivity to student contributions, 8) connected discourse, 9) a challenging but non-threatening atmosphere and 10) general student participation, including self-selected turns.

Escamilla, K. and Andrade, A. (1992, February). Descubriendo La Lectura: An application of Reading Recovery in Spanish. Education and Urban Society, 24 (2), 212-226.

­ Describes Descubriendo La Lectura (DLL), a short-term, intensive early intervention program in L1 for young Spanish-speaking students struggling with literacy acquisition modeled on Reading Recovery (RR).

­ Details the development of the DLL program in a southern Arizona school district where RR was adapted by Spanish bilingual education resource teachers trained in RR in English.

­ Describes the implementation of the Spanish program with a representative first grade student in the 1989-90 school year (20 weeks of instruction).

­ Discusses the need for cultural sensitivity in adapting and implementing RR into other languages and specifies the appropriate target population for DLL instruction. Recommends that intervention programs address the psychosocial, cultural and linguistic needs as well as the academic needs of students.

Gersten, R. & Dimino, J. (1989, February). Teaching literature to at-risk students. Educational Leadership, pp. 53-57.

­ Describes the use of two strategies with low-achieving high school students: scaffolding and story grammar as well as research that supports the use of these two techniques.

­ Advocates for the teaching of literature to low-achieving students using scaffolded and story grammar instruction to support comprehension.

Hamayan, E.V. (1994). Language development of low-literacy students. In F. Genesee (Ed.), Educating Second Language Children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community (p. 278-300). New York: Cambridge University Press.

­ Explores ways of helping children become literate in a second language and suggests that the building of second language literacy skills by exploiting students' knowledge of the native language is a valuable asset when resources are available to do so.

­ Describes low-literacy students as those with limited, interrupted or no prior formal schooling. Distinguishes between the needs of younger and older preliterate students.

­ Proposes that no single approach can be effective, but that the complex task of language learning necessitates a multifaceted approach: a combination of holistic meaningful instruction with a systematic focus on the formal aspects of language.

­ Concludes by stressing the importance of: 1) classrooms rich with meaningful, environmental print, 2) natural emergence of skills in a low-anxiety environment, 3) motivating literacy activities, 4) instruction embedded in meaningful functional language activities, and 5) integration of literacy development with academic content instruction.

Hamayan, E. V. (1989, Summer). Teaching writing to potentially English proficient students using whole language approaches. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education [Program Information Guide No. 11].

­ Presents the underlying assumptions of whole language approaches to literacy instruction.

­ Describes five whole language approaches to the teaching of writing: 1) routine writing, 2) Language Experience Approach, 3) storybooks as a source for writing activities (cloze passages, rewriting endings/new versions of stories), 4) journal writing (dialogue journals and diaries), and 5) creative writing.

­ Reviews important considerations in implementing holistic language approaches.

Henderson, O.R. (1989). An ESL communicative curriculum guide for the preliterate high school student. Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 3, 41-58.

­ After a review of the literature in second language acquisition, presents a research-based curriculum guide for ESL students who are not yet literate in any language and who have minimal or no knowledge of English.

­ Describes the goals and content of the curriculum, with a figure to illustrate the progression from beginning to advanced proficiency and taking into account both BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skill) and CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) development across four skill areas (Listening Comprehension, Speaking, Reading and Writing).

­ Describes the methodology and representative activities to illustrate the content of the curriculum.

Hodges, V. P. (1993, March). Teaching at-risk students: A quality program in a small rural high school. Paper presented at the National Conference on Creating the Quality School, Oklahoma City, OK. [ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 360 131.]

­ Personal account of the use of thematic units to promote intensive reading and writing practice, build background knowledge, develop vocabulary and extend study skills with at-risk pupils of various backgrounds.

­ Describes actual units implemented.

Labbo, L. D. and Teale, W. H. (1990, February). Cross-age reading: A strategy for helping poor readers. The Reading Teacher, 362-239.

­ Describes the successes of a small-scale study in which 20 low-achieving fifth grade readers read books to kindergarten students over an 8-week period.

­ Details the four stages that were involved in implementing the cross-age tutoring program: 1) preparation, 2) pre-reading collaboration, 3) cross-age reading with kindergartners and 4) post-reading collaboration.

Lee, C. D. (1992, February). Literacy, cultural diversity, and instruction. Education and Urban Society, 24 (2), 279-291.

­ Discusses three models of culturally-sensitive scaffolding that draw upon community language strengths and social knowledge:

1) Signifying and "Speakerly Texts" [African American Community}

2) Talk Story [Native American Community]

3) Community Funds of Knowledge [Latino Community]

­ Argues for the use of culturally sensitive models of literacy instruction based on the cultural and linguistic norms of ethnically diverse communities.

Leverett, R.G. & Diefendorf, A.O. (1992, Summer). Students with language deficiencies: Suggestions for frustrated teachers. Teaching Exceptional Children, pp. 30-34.

­ Describes use of the following strategies: marginal gloss, vocabulary guides, cued text, advance organizers, structured overviews, semantic webs, language experience approach and attribute/classification activities. These activities are divided into teacher prepared activities and teacher directed group activities.

­ While the authors are incorrect in labeling students with language differences as language "deficient", the strategies they advocate would be extremely beneficial to at-risk, low literacy language minority students.

Lewis, D. (1979). Preliteracy activities for adolescents and adults. In M. Celce-Murcia and L. McIntosh, (Eds.). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (pp. 113-128). Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.

­ Addresses the educator instructing LEP adolescents who may have had minimal prior schooling and is unable to read and write in his/her home language.

­ Describes activities which are intended to provide opportunities for the beginning student to successfully learn simple concepts such as numerals, colors, common nouns.

­ Sequences tasks in order of difficulty ranging across a continuum of three levels. Provides activities for listening and reading, handwriting practice and conveying personal information. Provides suggestions for further reading.

Moran, C., Stobbe, J., Tinajero, A., & Tinajero, J.V., (1993). Strategies for working with overage students. In J.V. Tinajero and A.F. Ada (Eds). The power of two languages: Literacy and biliteracy for Spanish-speaking students (pp.117-131) New York, NY: Mcmillan/McGraw Hill School Publishing Company.

­ Describes attitudes and strategies which can assist the overage student. Promotes creating environments where these students are accepted, respected, made to feel they belong and given opportunities to be in charge of their own learning. Views the home/school connection as indispensable and suggests strategies for enhancing parental involvement.

­ Recognizes such strategies as using high-interest, multicultural literature, shared and interactive reading activities, as well as the language experience approach, the use of songs and the dramatic arts as being particularly effective.

­ Provides a chart of target phonemes in Spanish to teach students when teaching decoding and encoding in Spanish.

Perez, B. (1993). Biliteracy practices and issues in secondary schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 69 (1), 117-135.

­ Reviews cognitive, sociocultural, sociolinguistic and anthropological perspectives on literacy development, literacy events, literacy environments and the social consequences of literacy.

­ Provides a review of research on school literacy and biliteracy and describes the needs of bilingual learners. Questions focus on English language development in secondary schools and general lack of emphasis on L1 language literacy and learning while students are in the process of acquiring English.

­ Identifies promising literacy practices for secondary schools.

Perez, B. (1993, Summer). The bilingual teacher (Spanish/English) and literacy instruction. Teacher Education Quarterly, 20 (3), 43-52.

­ Describes four whole language classrooms in California (K-4), including common elements of whole language instruction used in the four classrooms.

­ Identifies successful whole language literacy practices and examines 5 aspects present in effective whole language classrooms: 1) literacy and talking about literacy, 2) learning about the code, 3) writing/reading and making meaning, 4) concern for the social context of literacy and 5) teacher expectations. Gives implications for teacher educators and new teachers related to each aspect.

Pratt, S. (1982). ESL/literacy: A beginning. TESL Talk., pp. 96-103.

­ Describes an ESL literacy program for older illiterate immigrants in Ontario, Canada.

­ Distinguishes types of low literacy students as defined by Donna McGee of Vancouver Community College.

­ Describes various student-centered approaches used to develop initial literacy. Also used with more advanced students are materials produced by Jack Wigfield (Steps in Reading and Writing), sample lessons of which are provided in the article.

Sainz, J. and Biggins, C. M. (1991). Effective methodology for teaching beginning reading in English to bilingual students. Unpublished paper. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 341 241.

­ Explores and critiques various methods of teaching beginning reading and the processes involved in skilled reading.

­ Presents case studies that exemplify the "flaws" with current methods of teaching reading for L2 learners and the need to teach listening and speaking (oral communication) skills.

­ Describes the ESTRI Program (Easy Steps to Reading Independence); a program that simultaneously focuses on sound symbol relationships (decoding through syllabication) and higher order thinking and language arts skills.

­ Presents results of an experimental study with fifth grade class of 22 bilingual students reading well below average in which the ESTRI method was employed.

Simich-Dudgeon, C. (1989, Summer). English literacy development: Approaches and strategies that work with limited English proficient children and adults. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. [New Focus, Number 12.]

­ Discusses selected issues in the development of literacy in children and adults with limited English proficiency and their relevance to literacy teaching. Presents an overview of literacy definitions and suggests several models which may be effective with such populations.

­ Embraces the Freirian conceptualization of literacy instruction which stresses that curricula and texts must reflect the experiences and voice as well as image of the non-literate learner as literacy has social, cultural and political dimensions.

­ Critiques various approaches to literacy instruction in relation to LEP students and suggests that the whole language approach may be superior because it takes into account the whole learner and builds in an integrated manner upon the students' previous learning. Also supports the use of the Language Experience Approach to assist with the transition from oral English to reading and writing.

­ Reviews the work of G. Hillocks and advocates process writing and modeling approaches to the more traditional grammar-based strategies for writing instruction.

Skinner, R. E. (1994). LEP readers: Culturally influenced meaning or underachievement. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 568.

­ Discusses the importance of culturally-determined background knowledge in interpreting English language texts and identifies culturally distant texts as an important cause of LEP student underachievement in reading. Explores the premise that literacy is a cognitive and a social process and as such is affected by students cognitive schemata and culturally determined frames of reference.

­ Recommends use of culturally sensitive texts, and use of culturally-compatible social interactions and learning strategies in literacy instruction to enhance performance.

­ Suggests 11 helpful classroom strategies in teaching reading to LEP students.

Slavin, R.E., Stevens, R.J., and Madden, N.A. (1988). Accommodating student diversity in reading and writing instruction: A cooperative learning approach.Remedial and Special Education, 9 (1), 60-66.

­ Describes the work of researchers at Johns Hopkins UniversityÔs Center for Research on Elementary Schools on the teaching of reading and writing in the intermediate grades. This project, known as CIRC (Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition) has three principle elements--basal-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension and integrated language arts/writing. Students work in heterogeneous teams and follow a cycle that involves teacher presentation, team practice, peer preassessment, additional practice and testing.

­ Principle strategies during basal-related activities include: partner reading, story structure and story related writing, words out loud, word meaning, story retell and spelling practice.

­ Describes how writerÔs workshop and independent reading are combined with the other direct instruction and practice techniques advocated.

­ Ends with a section on research studies conducted on the method and a discussion.

Thomas, R.L. (1993). Cross-Age and Peer Tutoring. ERIC Digest #78 (EDO-CS-93-01). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills.

­ After defining cross-age and peer tutoring methods of instruction, discusses organizational and implementation concerns.

­ Cites specific benefits and outcomes of such programs as well as examples of effective programs such as the Valued Youth Program and Student Team Learning (STL).

Walsh, C. (1991). Literacy and school success: Considerations for programming and instruction. In C. Walsh and H. Prashker (Eds.). Literacy development for bilingual students, (pp. 1-11). Boston, MA: New England Multifunctional Resource Center for Language and Culture in Education. Available from the New England MRC, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125.

­ Provides a theoretical approach to program development and curriculum design for secondary students who are preliterate or have low literacy.

­ Defines effective programs and argues for a theme-based approach to literacy instruction and the use of studentsÔ native language as a structural base from which to initiate basic skills and second language development.

See also Johns, K. M. and Espinoza, C. (1992). Mainstreaming language minority students in reading and writing. Phi Delta Kappa Fastback.

Peregoy, S.F. & Boyle, O.F. (1993). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-8 Teachers. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.


New York City Board of Education (1992). Guide for native language and content area literacy programs for high school Haitian-Creole-Speaking students. Brooklyn, NY: New York City Board of Education.

Sakash, K. (1987). English literacy for non-literate secondary LEP students. Des Plaines, IL: Title VII Midwest Multifunctional Resource Center.

­ Part One provides a summary of information on teaching reading/writing to non-literate secondary LEP students. Eight areas are included: 1) Characteristics and general needs of non-literate secondary LEP students, 2) testing and assessment, 3) bilingual and special alternative programs, 4) vocational education and VESL programs, 5) family literacy and community-based programs, 6) methods for teaching English literacy, 7) available materials for teaching English literacy and 8) training educational personnel to teach secondary non-literate LEP students.

­ Part Two is an annotated bibliography of references covering the same topics included in Part One.

InterAmerica Midwest Multifunctional Resource Center (1993, September). Implications and considerations for counseling language minority students. Des Plaines, IL: InterAmerica Midwest Multifuntional Resource Center.--See especially "Considerations for Counseling the Culturally and Linguistically Diverse At-risk Student" by Brenda M. Rodriguez, pp. 18-25.

­ Briefly describes a new at-risk population; those with "post traumatic stress disorder" (victims of violence), common reasons cited for the school failure of at-risk students and the need for appropriate counseling and intervention.

­ Provides an annotated bibliography of materials on the same topic.

Also Contact:

Program in Immigrant Education, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Contact Adriana Vaznaugh at (202) 429-9292.

­ To obtain program descriptions of four funded demonstration projects for immigrant students at the secondary level.

­ Four publications are forthcoming (Winter 1995/96) in a series entitled "Topics in Secondary Immigrant Education." One of the forthcoming publications seems of particular relevance and is entitled Through the Golden Door: Toward and Effective Educational Delivery System for Low-Schooled Immigrant Adolescents. Now available is a publication entitled Dropout Intervention and Language Minority Youth and National Coalition of Advocates for Students, 100 Boylston Street, Suite 737, Boston, MA 02116

­ Houses the National Center for Immigrant Students which produces documents and maintains collections of references of relevance to educators serving immigrant students. One title of interest is New Voices: Immigrant Students in U.S. Public Schools (First & Carrera) published in 1988.

­ Produces a newsletter entitled New Voices out of the Clearinghouse for Immigrant Education [CHIME]. Each newsletter has a special focus. Also have specialized bibliographies such as one on Haitian students, another on immigrant girls, and so forth. Contact them for a listing.

Produced as a product for the Board of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Center (BETAC) of Nassau County's Special Project on Overage Students by Dr. Nancy Cloud, Principal Researcher/Consultant, June, 1995; Revised June, 1996.