|Home||New York State Education Department||Curriculum Instruction and Instructional Technology||Virtual Learning System|
Students will understand how to develop and use maps and other graphic representations to display geographic issues, problems, and questions.
Students will work in groups to compare the travels of Hudson and Champlain with contemporary maps in order to identify the major cities, the bodies of water, and the mountain ranges through which they ventured. Students will also research the Native American groups identify the Native American groups that inhabited the lands traveled by Hudson and Champlain.
Have students trace the voyages of Champlain and Hudson.
In small groups, students should analyze the study guide, “European and Native American Encounters of Colonial New York.” They should then complete the Henry Hudson and Samuel de Champlain graphic organizers on the basis of the study guide.
“We left the next day (July 29 1609) continuing our course in the river as far as the entrance to the lake (Lake Champlain). In this there are many pretty islands, which are low, covered with very beautiful woods and meadows, where there is a quantity of game, and animals for hunting, such as stags, fallow-deer, fawns, roebucks, bears and other animals which come from the mainland to these islands. We caught a great many of them. There are also many beavers, not only in this river, but in many other little ones which empty into it….
Samuel de Champlain was a critical figure in the establishment of New France along the St. Lawrence River. He set up a small trading post at Quebec, the capital of the colony, in 1608. Working with a small number of French colonists who had interested in the fur trade, Champlain recognized that success depended on alliances with the native peoples of the northern region. In June 1609, Champlain and nine French soldiers joined a war party of Montagnais and Hurons to fight the Iroquois. About 200 Iroquois warriors from the Mohawk tribe met Champlain at what was later called Lake Champlain. Over the next several decades, Champlain chronicled his explorations and observations of New France, providing important information on 17th-century life and warfare in North America. Although Champlain was on Lake Champlain for only a few weeks, he left his mark on the region.
Students will investigate the roles and contributions of individuals and groups in relation to key social, political, cultural, and religious practices throughout world history.
Students will explain that although technological effects are complex and difficult to predict accurately, humans can control the development and implementation of technology.
“When evening came we embarked in our canoes to continue on our way; and, as we were going along very quietly, and without making any noise on the twenty-ninth of the month, we met the Iroquois at ten o’clock at night at the end of a cape that projects into the lake on the wet side, and they were coming to war. We both began to make loud cries, each getting his arms ready. We withdrew toward the water and the Iroquois went ashore and arranged their canoes in a line, and began to cut down trees with poor axes, which they get in war sometime, and also with others of stone; and they barricaded themselves very well….
1. Why did Samuel de Champlain ally himself with the Montagnais and the Hurons?
2. What role did technology play in Champlain’s defeat of the Iroquois?
3. To what extent did Champlain’s defeat of the Iroquois change North American history?
1609 Battle of Samuel de Champlain
Students will support interpretations and decisions about relative significance of information with explicit statements, evidence, and appropriate arguments.
Students will explain the dynamics of cultural change and how interactions between and among cultures has affected various cultural groups throughout the world.
Answer the following questions regarding Champlain’s drawing (ca. 1613) depicting his battle with the Mohawks in 1609.
Students will analyze the development of American culture, explaining how ideas, values, beliefs, and traditions have changed over time and how they unite all Americans.
Early in September 1615 Champlain set out from near Lake Huron with a small force of French musketeers and four or five hundred Huron Iroquois Indians. Champlain’s Lieutenant Brule, set out earlier with a guard of twelve Indians to make his way to the Susquehanna and secure the services of 500 Andastes or Susquehannocks who were willing to fight against the five nations. They traveled to Lake Ontario and crossed near the Thousand Islands. The canoes were hidden near Famine river and the party began a journey inland until they came to Oneida Lake. Skirting the southern shore and turning to the south, they captured 11 Iroquois who were fishing. The next day, October 10, 1615, they came in sight of the fortified village of Oneidas at Nichols pond.
Engaged in the harvesting of their crops of corn, beans, and squashes the Oneidas were startled by the invaders. Not waiting for Champlain to come up with the main body of men, the Hurons advanced without reinforcements, thus saving the Oneidas from complete disaster. The Oneida archers quickly responded and threw themselves between the enemy and their women and children. They held ground until all had retired to safety. They then shut the gates to the village leaving six Hurons wounded and taking a few others inside with their own wounded.
Champlain left a complete diagram and description of the Oneida Village. It had orderly laid out streets between the bark longhouses. The village was well protected with four rows of log palisades thirty feet high. These interlocked at the tops for greater strength and at a suitable distance from the tops was a gallery for the defenders who were protected by timbers fasted to the upright palisades. At intervals along the walls were piles of stones to supplement the arrows of the archers. One corner of the fort projected into the spring fed pond and provided water to quench fires that might be started. Champlain withdrew his force to the southeast of the village behind a sheltering ridge and drew up a plan for the assault of the fort. This did not differ much from those used by Caesar with the exception that he relied upon fire to reduce the wall rather than a battering ram and must use a mob of excitable warriors in the place of disciplined troops. He began the attack on the l1th by having 200 warriors bring up a movable tower overlooking the walls in which he had stationed some musketeers to sweep the galleries by their fire. A testudo (tortoise shell shield) was provided under which the Hurons could advance to the wall protected, build a fire and then leave it as a protecting roof to shield the flames from water. The walls were cleared by the musket shots but the excitable Indians forgot their well made plans in their efforts to show their personal bravery. The testudo was abandoned. Fire was placed by unprotected warriors to the walls. Others added bundles of fuel. Most of them wasted their efforts by shooting arrows in the wooden walls. Unfortunately the fire was placed on the wrong sides where the wind blew the flames and smoke away from the fort. The Oneidas ran their water gutters through crevices in the walls and extinguished the fires. They kept up such a shower of arrows on the besiegers that they were obliged to retire to safety taking about a score of wounded with them. Among these was Champlain with an arrow in his thigh and another in his knee.
Unable to burn the walls or force the gate, they rested in their camp waiting for the expected reinforcements. On the 16th of October a heavy snow storm began and an orderly retreat back to Lake Ontario was made. On the 18th the force under Brule arrived at this fort but was quickly dispersed by the Oneidas.
It was at this place where history was made. Champlain's dreams of a New France here were shattered. The Iroquois Confederation became the foes of New France and formed, a sturdy barrier behind which the English colonies on the Atlantic seaboard were allowed to develop. The five nations quickly saw the advantage of firearms and soon began exchanging their furs for them with the Dutch traders. They almost annihilated the Hurons and the Susquehanna tribes and absorbed the survivors. They repaid Champlain's unfriendly call with many bloody ones on the more northern territory of New France.
1. Where did the battle between Champlain, Brule, and their native allies take place?
2. How were the Oneidas able to withstand Champlain’s attack?
3. What was the historical significance of this battle?
European Engraving of the Attack on the Oneida Village in October 1615
1. What is the name given to the type of dwelling within the fortified walls?
2. What nation resides within the walls of the protective structure?
3. Who is attacking the fortified village?