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English Language Arts
Core Curriculum
(Prekindergarten–Grade 12)
May 2005

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
http://www.p12.nysed.gov

 

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Regents of The University
 

Robert M. Bennett, Chancellor, B.A., M.S.

Tonawanda

Adelaide L. Sanford, Vice Chancellor, B.A., M.A., P.D. Hollis
Saul B. Cohen, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. New Rochelle
James C. Dawson, A.A., B.A., M.S., Ph.D. Peru
Anthony S. Bottar, B.A., J.D. North Syracuse
Merryl H. Tisch, B.A., M.A. New York
Geraldine D. Chapey, B.A., M.A., Ed.D. Belle Harbor
Arnold B. Gardner, B.A., LL.B. Buffalo
Harry Phillips, 3rd, B.A., M.S.F.S. Hartsdale
Joseph E. Bowman, Jr., B.A., M.L.S., M.A., M.Ed., Ed.D Albany
Lorraine A. CortΙs-VΑzquez, B.A., M.P.A. Bronx
James R. Tallon, Jr., B.A., M.A. Binghamton
Milton L. Cofield, B.S., M.B.A., Ph.D. Rochester
John Brademas, B.A., Ph.D. New York
Carol Bellamy, A.B., J.D. Brooklyn
Roger B. Tilles, B.A., J.D. Great Neck

 

President of The University and Commissioner of Education
Richard P. Mills
 

Chief of Staff
Counsel and Deputy Commissioner for Legal Affairs
Kathy A. Ahearn
 

Chief Operating Officer
Deputy Commissioner for the Office of Management Services
Theresa E. Savo

 

Deputy Commissioner for Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education
James A. Kadamus

 

Assistant Commissioner for Curriculum and Instructional Support
Jean C. Stevens

 

Assistant Director for Curriculum, Instruction and Instructional Technology
Anne Schiano

The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs, services and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print or audio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department’s Office for Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.

Acknowledgments

The State Education Department wishes to acknowledge those individuals who substantially contributed to the content of this publication:

Joseph McAnanama
UFT Teacher Center Literacy Coach
New York City School District 31

 

Alisha Bahrmann
First-Grade Teacher
Schalmont Central School

 

Linda Carr
Supervisor of The Literacy Center, Retired
Capital Region BOCES

 

Andrew Coffey
ESL Instructor
Schenectady City Schools

 

Regina Derrico
English Department Team Leader
Williamsville Central School District

 

John Harmon
Humanities Curriculum Coordinator
Skaneateles Central School District

 

Kathleen Hinchman
Associate Professor and Chair
Reading and Language Arts Center

Syracuse University

 

Pamela Humphrey

Teacher Center / Literacy Coach

New York City School District 9

 

Donna Smith Kemp

Classroom Teacher

Peru Central School District

 

Michelle Kolceski

Reading Specialist

Jamesville-DeWitt Central School District

Louisa Kramer-Vida, Ed.D.
District Supervisor: English Language Arts
Reading and Library/Media
Oyster Bay-East Norwich School District

 

Karen L. Markoff
Director of Curriculum and Staff Development
Syracuse City School District

 

Deborah A. Moriarity
Reading Coordinator
Syracuse City School District

 

Judith K. Rothstein
English Supervisor, Retired
Guilderland Central School District

 

Judith (Jude) Smith
Fourth-Grade Teacher
Arlington Central School District

 

Francine Stayter
Elementary Education and Reading
SUNY at Oneonta

 

Brian Stumbaugh
English Department Chairperson

Voorheesville Central School District

 

Elizabeth Carson-Tompkins

Teacher of English/ELA

North Salem Central School District

 

Trudy Walp

Instructor, Reading Department

University at Albany


English Language Arts (ELA)

 

INTRODUCTION

This English Language Arts Core Curriculum (2005) is a standards-based document that provides an additional level of specificity to the learning standards for English language arts adopted by the New York State Board of Regents in 1996. It respects the tradition of local choice in New York State that empowers educators to select texts, identify products, and use a rich array of instructional strategies and activities to meet student learning needs. This core curriculum is designed to provide assistance, while allowing for creativity, in the development of local instructional materials. This revision of the core curriculum is in response to the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate for specificity of performance indicators in grades 3–8. This created an opportunity for New York State not only to expand the level of specificity for prekindergarten–grade 12 but to present together material from both the Early Literacy Guidance: Prekindergarten–Grade 3 and the English Language Arts Resource Guide with Core Curriculum.

 

Educators are encouraged to use this core curriculum document to align local curricula to the grade-by-grade performance indicators as designated under New York State’s learning standards and key ideas. In addition to subject-specific knowledge and understandings, there are some crosscutting capabilities that are common to all fields and that contribute to successful participation in school, work, family, and community. Such essential skills have been articulated in the report of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) and are included in the Universal Foundation Skills found in the Regents-adopted Learning Standards for Career Development and Occupational Studies.

 

PHILOSOPHY

State Education Department staff and educators from across the State who collaborated in the development, review, and subsequent revision of this core curriculum did so on the basis of shared beliefs. These beliefs are reflected in the English Language Arts Core Curriculum, which

• Integrates with other State Education Department curriculum guidance materials, such as Preliminary Draft Framework for English Language Arts, Learning Standards for English Language Arts, English Language Arts Resource Guide with Core Curriculum, Early Literacy Guidance, Closing the Gap–Teacher to Teacher, Essential Elements of Learning, and the New York State Testing Program Grades 3–8

• Recognizes that English language arts learners must be exposed to regular and varied opportunities to read

• Guides students to read a minimum of 25 books or the equivalent, per year, across all content areas and all standards

• Guides students to write at least 1,000 words, per month, across all content areas and all standards

• Guides students to listen and to speak on a daily basis

• Recognizes that teachers in all content areas share responsibility for the development of reading, writing, listening, and speaking competencies

• Supports the recursive nature of language arts development across the continuum, from prekindergarten through grade 12

• Affirms that all students are able to achieve competency in the presence of skilled instruction, adequate time for learning, varied and/or specialized resources, and additional support as needed

• Recognizes that equity in and access to technology and other resources must be ensured at State, regional, and local levels and enhances the development of critical literacy competencies

• Reflects an understanding of the developmental needs of students as they work to achieve competency in language arts

• Focuses on students as active learners, responsible for and knowledgeable about their own learning

The State Education Department is proud of its tradition of involving New York State teachers in a variety of curriculum guidance initiatives related to each of the seven learning standard areas and State assessments. Over the years, thousands of New York’s teachers have worked with the Education Department to develop New York’s learning standards, resource guides with core curriculum, statewide professional development modules, test items, and scoring procedures for State assessments. More recently, teachers have played an important role in reviewing curriculum guidance materials and Regents examinations prior to statewide use.

 

The Education Department values teachers’ expert opinions in guiding this important work, encourages increased involvement, and has issued a Call for Expertise to solicit teacher/educator interest in state-level work. See http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/callforexpertise.htm

 

DEFINITIONS

Learning Standard

A learning standard is an established level or degree of quantity, value, or quality. New York State learning standards are defined as the knowledge, skills, and understandings that individuals can, and do, habitually demonstrate over time—as a consequence of instruction and experience.

 

New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding

As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas, discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information.

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression

Students will read and listen to oral, written and electronically produced texts and performances, relate texts and performances to their own lives, and develop an understanding of the diverse social, historical, and cultural dimensions the texts and performances represent. As speakers and writers, students will use oral and written language for self-expression and artistic creation.

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation

As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will present, in oral and written language and from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information and issues.

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction

Students will use oral and written language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views.

Key Ideas

Key ideas are listed as the receptive language skills of listening and reading and as the expressive language skills of writing and speaking.

 

Core Performance Indicators

Core performance indicators are descriptions of student achievement: what students should know and be able to do in prekindergarten–grade 12 as a result of skilled instruction. Core performance indicators are those performance indicators that are common to all four English language arts standards.

 

Literacy Competencies

The prekindergarten–grade 3 literacy competencies have been incorporated into this core curriculum without modification from the Early Literacy Guidance document. In 2002, through the federal Reading First grant, the New York State Education Department is addressing the goal that all children will be able to read by the end of third grade. The Early Literacy Guidance document played a significant role in the successful awarding of this grant to New York State.

 

Grade-Specific Performance Indicators

Grade-specific performance indicators are descriptions of student achievement: what students should know and be able to do in prekindergarten–grade 12 as a result of skilled instruction. Grade-specific performance indicators are specific competencies for each key idea within each learning standard.

 

HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE

This revised edition (2005) of the English Language Arts Core Curriculum provides an increased level of specificity for each of the four English language arts learning standards. This level of specificity is delineated for each grade, prekindergarten–grade 12. This guide is organized into three grade configurations. Each grade configuration includes core performance indicators, literacy competencies, and grade-specific performance indicators.

 

• Core Performance Indicators: Core performance indicators are common to all four English language arts standards, according to the following grade configurations:

PreK– K–1

2–3–4

5–6

7–8 

9–10–11–12

• Literacy Competencies: Each grade describes the literacy competencies that are organized by the four key ideas of language and literacy: reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

 

• Grade-Specific Performance Indicators: These performance indicators are organized under each key idea within each learning standard. Each key idea is defined through the presentation of grade-specific performance indicators: what students need to know and be able to do as a result of skilled instruction. When performance indicators are reinforced across multiple grades, they represent the ongoing development of skills and are repeated with the understanding that this competency will increase in complexity in accordance with grade-level expectations. Students are expected to reach proficiency at the grade level in which a performance indicator is first listed.

 

As educators develop and align their English language arts curricula for each grade, core performance indicators, literacy competencies, and grade-specific performance indicators must be addressed holistically.

 

NEXT STEPS

This document is the first step in a full revision of the English Language Arts Resource Guide with Core Curriculum. Over time, additional curriculum guidance materials will become available as part of the current initiative to update the English Language Arts Resource Guide with Core Curriculum.

 

Literacy competencies for prekindergarten–grade 8 are presented in this document. Literacy competencies for grades 9–12 are under development and will be posted online when available.

 

RELATED WEBSITES

For information regarding updated guidance materials, resources, and policies, please visit the following websites periodically:

• www.emsc.nysed.gov/3-8/home.html 

The Latest News on Grades 3–8 Testing in English Language Arts website provides current information on the ELA grade-by-grade performance indicators and the New York State Testing Program.

• www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai 

The Curriculum, Instruction and Instructional Technology (CIIT) website provides quick access to each of New York State’s seven learning standards areas. This site includes general descriptions of the learning standards, the English Language Arts Resource Guide with Core Curriculum, news items, and links to related resources. Information specific to English language arts (ELA) is available by clicking on the Shakespeare logo. See www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/ela.html 

• http://vls.nysed.gov/vls 

The New York State Education Department’s Virtual Learning System (VLS) presents the definitive set of New York State’s learning standards and their respective key ideas and performance indicators, as well as the alternate performance indicators for students with severe disabilities. VLS offers resources to classroom teachers to support prekindergarten–grade 12 standards-based instruction. Other teaching resources, including those from the New York State Library and Archives and Public Broadcasting Services, are available as well.

• www.emsc.nysed.gov 

The Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary and Continuing Education (EMSC) website offers direct links to its offices, the Board of Regents, and the school report card sites. The EMSC site provides recent and archived communications to the field regarding SED policy, speeches and presentations by the Deputy Commissioner, directories, newsletters, and monthly Regents materials. Links to curriculum and general education resources, including VESID and the ESL Network, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), funding opportunities, and other related items are included. See http://www.p12.nysed.gov/deputy/nclb/nclbhome.htm  

Prekindergarten–Grade 1

Core Performance Indicators: common to all four ELA standards

Throughout prekindergarten, kindergarten, and grade 1, students are developing the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

 

 

Reading

• Distinguish between print and pictures

• Recognize the difference between letters and words

• Follow left-to-right and top to bottom direction when reading

• Locate parts of a book

• Recognize and identify letters of the alphabet

• Alphabetize high-frequency words according to the first letter

• Distinguish the difference between vowels and consonants

• Use beginning and ending consonants, as well as vowel sounds, to identify words

• Recognize the different sounds that make up a word

• Point to words in a text or on a chart when read aloud, matching spoken word to print

• Recognize the singular and plural of frequently used words

• Recognize own name and the names of friends and family in print

• Recognize letter-sound correspondence

• Recognize that words consist of a combination of sounds

• Identify rhyming words

• Monitor own reading by applying strategies (e.g., sounding out letters; using context, grammar, and picture clues; and rereading) to determine meaning

• Read aloud with expression and fluency

• Use computer software to support early reading development

Listening

• Listen respectfully and responsively

• Attend to a listening activity for a specified period of time

• Avoid interrupting

• Respond with expression appropriate to what is heard

Writing

    • Create a drawing, picture, sign, or other graphic to represent a word or concept

    • Follow left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when writing

    • Use spacing between letters and words when writing on a line

    • Write recognizable upper- and lowercase letters in manuscript

    • Capitalize the first words of sentences, the letter "I," and proper nouns, such as names, days of the week, and months

    • Write the letters of own first and last names

    • Spell high-frequency words correctly

    • Use the singular and plural of high-frequency words

    • Put words together in sentence format by using

       - end punctuation, such as periods

       - various parts of speech, such as nouns and adjectives, and verbs

    • Begin to edit your writings, with assistance

    • Use beginning-of-sentence capitalization and end punctuation

    • Use classroom resources, such as word walls, picture dictionaries, teachers, and peers, to support the writing process

    • Give and seek constructive feedback in order to improve writing

    • Use computer software to support development of early writing skills

Speaking

• Respond respectfully

• Use age-appropriate vocabulary

• Take turns speaking in a group

• Correct the pronunciation of words by using classroom resources, such as teachers, peers, audio- and videotapes, and computer software

• Speak in complete sentences when required

• Stay on topic

• Speak audibly

• Speak with expression appropriate to the occasion

L

Prekindergarten Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during prekindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that prekindergarten students are developing as they learn to read include

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

• Listen to and identify spoken language sounds in the environment

• Identify and produce spoken words that rhyme (e.g., rhymes, poems, songs, word games) including word families (e.g., c-at, b-at, s-at)

• Count or tap the number of syllables in multisyllabic words to show awareness of the syllable as a discrete unit

• Count or tap the number of words in a spoken sentence to show awareness of the word as a discrete unit

Print Awareness

• Understand that the purpose of print is to communicate

• Follow left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when reading English

• Distinguish between letters and words to show awareness of printed letters

• Distinguish between print and pictures to show awareness of printed words

• Point to print as individual words are spoken to show awareness of printed words

Alphabet Recognition and Phonics

• Recognize and identify letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name

Fluency

• Read own name

• Recognize and identify environmental print including signs and labels

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Learn and use new words in spoken communication

• Learn new words from books

• Use new vocabulary words to talk about life experiences

• Connect vocabulary and life experiences to ideas in books

Comprehension Strategies

• Show interest in reading for different purposes (e.g., gaining information about the world and others)

• Make predictions about story events

• Retell stories with attentiveness to the sequence of events and main ideas

• Ask and answer questions about the content of books

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in a range of preschool-level texts, such as alphabet books, stories, poems, and informational texts

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use classroom and library media center resources to acquire information, with assistance

• Read familiar informational texts with repetitive language and simple illustrations to begin to collect data, facts, and ideas, with assistance

• Interpret information represented in pictures and illustrations

• Recognize and interpret familiar signs and symbols from the environment, such as labels on classroom furniture, equipment, and STOP signs

• Draw on prior experience to understand new data, facts, and ideas

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Comprehend and respond to literary texts and performances, with assistance

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to select books, tapes, and poems on the basis of personal choice/interest or teacher-selected criteria, such as a theme/topic

   - connect a picture or illustration to a story

• Dramatize or retell stories or parts of stories, using puppets, toys, and other props

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Identify ideas and experiences from texts and performances

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to

   - identify what they know about a specific story or topic

   - use illustrations to assist in understanding the content of a text

   - predict what could happen next or the outcome of a story or article, when read aloud, with assistance

   - evaluate and select books, poems, or tapes on the basis of personal choice

   - distinguish between real and imaginary stories, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to establish, maintain, and enhance personal relationships

• Respect age and gender of writer

• Recognize the vocabulary and writing conventions (e.g., greetings and closings) of social communication, with assistance

 

Prekindergarten Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during prekindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The performance indicators that prekindergarten students are developing as they learn to write include

Print Awareness

• Use left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when writing English

• Use spacing between letters and words

Spelling

• Use sound or invented spelling to spell independently

• Write correctly own first name

Handwriting

• Write some uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters, especially those in own name

Composition

• Label drawings with letters or words

• "Write" messages as part of play

• "Write" by using painting, drawing, letters, and some words

Motivation to Write

• "Write" and draw spontaneously to communicate meaning

• Show interest in sharing writing and drawing with others

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Copy letters from books, magazines, signs, charts, and own dictation

• Write some or all of the letters of own name on pictures, drawings, paintings, and written products

• Draw ideas gathered from personal experiences

• Use graphics, such as posters, to communicate information from personal experiences

• Maintain a portfolio of informational writings and drawings, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Draw or write original literary texts to

   - create a story using pictures and/or drawings

   - create poems or jingles to go with pictures and/or drawings

• Draw or write to respond to text to

   - express feelings about characters or events in a story, with assistance

   - describe characters or events, with assistance

   - dictate a sequence of events from a story

   - retell a story, with assistance

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings in response to literature, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Draw and/or write to express opinions and judgments to

   - share what they have learned about a topic

   - respond in pictures or words to an experience or event shared by a classmate

   - compare characters within and between stories

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings that express opinions and judgments, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share writing and drawing with peers or adults; for example, write and/or draw with a partner or in a cooperative group

• Respect the age and gender of the recipient

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings for social interaction, with assistance

 

Prekindergarten Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during prekindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The performance indicators that prekindergarten students are developing as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to spoken language (e.g., books read aloud, rhyming words, songs)

• Listen attentively for different purposes (e.g., to track individual words as they are spoken, to gain information)

• Understand and follow oral directions

• Listen respectfully without interrupting others

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information from nonfiction text

• Identify words on a chart, with assistance

• Follow a one-step direction

• Identify and respond to environmental sounds that provide information (e.g., school bell and fire alarm)

• Identify similarities in information about people and places

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Listen to literary texts and performances to

   - appreciate and enjoy literary works

   - recall a sequence of events from a personal experience

   - identify a character

   - respond to vivid language

   - identify specific people and places

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion on the basis of information in the world

• Form an opinion about a book or play read aloud by using established criteria, such as title and vocabulary, to judge books, with assistance

• Recognize differences in two versions of a familiar story, song, or finger play

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age and gender of the speaker

• Listen to friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives read aloud to get to know the writer and/or classmates

• Listen for the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Prekindergarten Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during prekindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The performance indicators that prekindergarten students are developing as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Use prekindergarten-level vocabulary and grammar in own speech

• Speak for different purposes (e.g., share ideas about personal experiences, books, or writings; retell a story; dramatize an experience or event)

• Speak audibly

• Speak with speed and expression appropriate for the purpose

• Take turns when speaking in a group

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Dictate information from personal experience

• Report information briefly to peers and familiar adults, with assistance

• Connect information from personal experiences to information from nonfiction texts, with assistance

• Relate more than one piece of information in sequence in retelling a story

• Share observations from classroom and home

• Ask questions to clarify directions and/or classroom routines

• Respond orally to simple questions and/or directions

• Share information, using appropriate visual aids (e.g., puppets, toys, and pictures) to illustrate a word or concept, with assistance

• Dramatize an experience or event

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret words of characters in stories, with assistance

• Engage in conversations with adults and peers regarding pictures, books, and experiences

• Role-play characters or events from stories

• Express feelings about a work of fiction

• Compare stories from personal experience with stories heard

• Dictate stories with a beginning, middle, and end, with assistance

• Describe the actions of characters in a story, with assistance

• Tell real or imaginative stories on the basis of their response to illustrations

• Describe familiar persons, places, or objects

• Recite short poems, nursery rhymes, and finger plays

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Share what they know about a topic

• Express an opinion about a story, poem, finger play, or poster

• Compare characters or events in two stories, with assistance

• Express an opinion about the color and form of illustrations

• Brainstorm to create an experience chart, with assistance

• Discuss different versions of the same story

• Relate events or characters in a story to their lives

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate in small or large group storytelling, singing, and finger play, in order to interact with classmates and adults in the classroom and school environment

• Share rhymes with peers and familiar adults

• Respect the age and gender of the listener

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, and personal narratives, in a group, to get to know the writer and each other

 

Kindergarten Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during kindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that kindergarten students are developing as they learn to read include

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

• Identify and produce spoken words that rhyme

• Blend beginning sound (onset) with ending sound (rime) to form known words in rhyming word families (k-it, s-it, b-it)

• Count or tap the number of syllables in spoken words

• Isolate individual sounds within spoken words ("What is the first sound in can?")—Phoneme Isolation

• Identify the same sounds in different spoken words ("What sound is the same in sit, sip, and sun?")—Phoneme Identity

• Categorize the word in a set of three or four words that has a different sound ("Which word doesn’t belong: doll, dish, pill?")—Phoneme Categorization

• Blend spoken phonemes to form words using manipulatives (e.g., counters) to represent each sound: /b/ /i/ /g/—Phoneme Blending

• Segment spoken words into component sounds using manipulatives (e.g., counters) to represent each sound ("How many sounds are there in big? Move three counters.")—Phoneme Segmentation

• Recognize the remaining word when a phoneme is removed ("What is cat without the /k/?")—Phoneme Deletion

• Make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word ("What word do you have if you add /s/ to mile?"—Phoneme Addition

• Substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word ("The word is rug. Change /g/ to /n/. What is the new word?")—Phoneme Substitution

Print Awareness

• Understand the purpose of print is to communicate

• Follow left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when reading English

• Distinguish between letters and words

• Distinguish between print and pictures

• Track print by pointing to written words when texts are read aloud by self or others

• Identify the parts of a book and their functions (e.g., front cover, back cover, and title page)

Alphabet Recognition and Phonics

• Recognize and name automatically all uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters

• Recognize that individual letters have associated sounds

• Recognize that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds in spoken words

• Identify some consonant letter-sound correspondences

Fluency

• Read own name and names of family or friends

• Recognize and identify some sight words

• Read automatically a small set of high-frequency sight words (e.g., a, the, I, my, use, is, are)

• Read familiar kindergarten-level texts at the emergent level

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Learn the meaning of new words and use them in own speech

• Learn new words from books

• Use new vocabulary words to talk about life experiences

• Connect vocabulary and life experiences to ideas in books

• Use a picture dictionary to learn the meanings of words in books

Comprehension Strategies

• Notice when sentences do not make sense

• Make predictions about story events

• Answer questions about text read aloud

• Retell or dramatize stories or parts of stories

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in reading a range of kindergarten-level texts from a variety of genres, such as alphabet books, stories, poems, and informational texts

• Read voluntarily familiar kindergarten-level texts

• Show familiarity with some book titles and authors

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use classroom and library media center resources to acquire information, with assistance

• Read familiar informational texts to begin to collect data, facts, and ideas, with assistance

• Interpret information represented in simple charts and webs

• Draw on a prior experience to understand new data, facts, and ideas

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Comprehend and respond to literary texts and performances

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to

   - select books, tapes, and poems on the basis of personal choice/interest or teacher-selected criteria, such as a theme/topic

- make connections between personal experiences and stories read

- predict what might happen next in a story read aloud

- retell a story, with assistance

• Dramatize or retell stories, using puppets, toys, and other props

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Identify and explain ideas and experiences from texts and performances

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to

   - identify what they know and have learned about a specific story or topic

   - use illustrations to assist in understanding the content of a text and to anticipate what will happen next

   - predict what could happen next or the outcome of a story or article read aloud

   - change the sequence of events in a story to create a different ending, with assistance

   - form an opinion about the differences between events in a story and events in own life

   - evaluate and select books, poems, or tapes on the basis of personal choice or teacher-selected criteria, such as topic, author, and illustrations

   - distinguish between real and imaginary stories

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experience to establish, maintain, and enhance personal relationships

• Respect the age, gender, and cultural traditions of the writer, with assistance

• Recognize the vocabulary and writing conventions (e.g., greetings and closings) of social communication, with assistance

 

Kindergarten Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during kindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that kindergarten students are developing as they learn to write include

Print Awareness

• Use left-to-right and top-to-bottom direction when writing English

• Use spacing between letters and words when writing on a line

Spelling

• Use developing knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to spell independently (e.g., sound or invented spelling)

• Use conventional spelling to spell some common or familiar words

• Write correctly own first and last names and the names of some friends or family

Handwriting

• Write legibly some uppercase and lowercase letters

Composition

• Label drawings with letters or words

• Write as part of play (e.g., playing school, store, restaurant)

• Write compositions that include letters or words and drawings to communicate for different purposes (e.g., tell stories, communicate feelings, provide information)

Motivation to Write

• Write voluntarily to communicate for different purposes

• Share writing with others

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Copy letters and words from books, magazines, signs, charts, and own dictation

• Write own name on pictures, drawings, paintings, and written products

• Draw or write facts and ideas gathered from personal experiences

• Use graphics such as posters to communicate information from personal experiences

• Maintain a portfolio of informational writings and drawings, with assistance

• Draw pictures to record facts from a lesson, with assistance

• Use resources such as a picture dictionary or word wall to find and write words, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Draw or write original literary texts to

   - create a story with a beginning, middle, and end, using pictures/drawings and some words, with assistance

   - create poems or jingles, using pictures/drawings and some words, with assistance

• Draw or write to respond to text to

   - express feelings about characters or events in a story

   - describe characters or events

   - list a sequence of events in a story, with assistance

   - retell a story

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings in response to literature, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Draw and/or write to express opinions and judgments to

   - share what they know and have learned about a theme or topic

   - respond in pictures or words to an experience or event shared by a classmate

   - depict an opinion about statements, illustrations, characters, and events in written and visual texts

   - compare characters and settings within and between stories

   - describe the differences between real and imaginary experiences, with assistance

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings that express opinions and judgments, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share writings and drawings with peers or adults; for example, write/draw with a partner or in a cooperative group

• Respect the age, gender, and culture of the recipient, with assistance

• Write friendly letters to others

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings for social interaction, with assistance

 

Kindergarten Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during kindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that kindergarten students are developing as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to spoken language (e.g., books read aloud, rhyming words, songs, video- and audio cassettes)

• Listen attentively for different purposes (e.g., to track individual words as they are spoken, to gain information)

• Understand and follow oral directions

• Listen respectfully without interrupting others

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information from nonfiction text

• Identify words and sentences on a chart, with assistance

• Follow a two step direction

• Identify and respond to environmental sounds, such as a school bell or a fire alarm, that provide information

• Identify similarities in information about people, places, and events

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Listen to literary texts and performances to

   - appreciate and enjoy literary works

   - match spoken words with pictures, with assistance

   - recall a sequence of events from a personal experience or story

   - identify character and setting

   - respond to vivid language (e.g., nonsense words and rhymes)

   - identify specific people and places

   - distinguish between a story and a poem, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion or evaluate information on the basis of information in the world

• Form an opinion about a book or play read aloud by using established criteria, such as title and vocabulary, to judge books

• Recognize differences in two or more versions of a familiar story, song, or finger play

• Identify messages in advertisements by listening to the words

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, and culture of the speaker

• Listen to friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives read aloud to get to know the writer and/or classmates

• Listen for the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Kindergarten Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during kindergarten are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that kindergarten students are developing as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Use kindergarten-level vocabulary and grammar in own speech

• Speak for different purposes (e.g., share ideas or information, retell a story, dramatize an experience or event)

• Speak audibly

• Speak with speed and expression appropriate for the purpose

• Take turns speaking in a group

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Dictate information from personal experience

• Report information briefly to peers and familiar adults, with assistance

• Connect information from personal experiences to information from nonfiction texts, with assistance

• Retell more than one piece of information in sequence

• Share observations from classroom and home

• Ask questions to clarify directions and/or classroom routines

• Respond orally to simple questions and/or directions

• Share information, using appropriate visual aids, such as, puppets, toys, and pictures, to illustrate a word or concept, with assistance

• Dramatize an experience or event

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret words of characters in stories

• Engage in conversations with adults and peers regarding pictures, books, and experiences

• Role-play characters or events from stories

• Express feelings about a work of fiction or poetry

• Respond to stories, legends, and songs from different cultural and ethnic groups, with assistance

• Compare stories from personal experience with stories heard

• Dictate stories with a beginning, middle, and end

• Express the mood of a story by using a variety of words, with assistance

• Describe the actions of characters in a story

• Tell real or imaginative stories on the basis of response to illustrations

• Retell familiar stories

• Describe familiar persons, places, or objects

• Recite short poems, nursery rhymes, and finger plays

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Share what they know and have learned about a topic

• Express an opinion or judgment about a story, poem, finger play, or poster

• Compare characters or events in two or more stories

• Express an opinion about the color, form, and style of illustrations

• Explain personal criteria (e.g., color and pictures) for choosing a book, poem, or story

• Dramatize differences and similarities in characters

• Brainstorm to create an experience chart

• Compare different versions of the same story

• Explain why two different characters view an event differently

• Compare events or characters in a story with their lives, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate in small or large group storytelling, singing, and finger play, in order to interact with classmates and adults in the classroom and school environment

• Share favorite anecdotes, riddles, and rhymes with peers and familiar adults

• Respect the age, gender, and interests of the listener

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives, with a partner or in a small group, to get to know the writer and each other

 

Grade 1 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during grade 1 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 1 students are developing as they learn to read include

Phonemic Awareness

• Count the number of syllables in a word

• Blend spoken sounds to form words, manipulating letters to represent each sound of most

one-syllable words

• Segment spoken words into component sounds, manipulating letters to represent each sound of most one-syllable words

Decoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis

• Identify and produce letter-sound correspondences, including consonants and short and long vowels

• Blend sounds using knowledge of letter-sound correspondences in order to decode unfamiliar, but decodable, one-syllable grade-level words

• Read common word families by blending the onset (/s/) and the rime
(/it/, /at/
) in grade-level words
(s-it, s-at)

• Decode grade-level words using knowledge of root words, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plurals, contractions, and compounds

• Check accuracy of decoding using context to monitor and self-correct

Print Awareness

• Identify parts of a book and their purposes including identification of author, illustrator, title page, table of contents, and chapter headings

Fluency

• Sight-read automatically grade-level common, high-frequency words

• Sight-read automatically grade-level irregularly spelled words

• Sight-read automatically 300–500 words including sight and decodable words (Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, p. 81.)

• Use punctuation clues to read connected text with expression, accuracy and fluency

• Read grade-level texts with decodable and irregularly spelled words at appropriate speed, accuracy and expression (target benchmark at grade 1: 71 WPM) (Davidson, M., & Towner, J. (2000). Reading Screening Test. Bellingham, WA: Applied Research and Development Center.)

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Study antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Study categories of words (e.g., animals, place names) to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Study root words, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, and plural nouns to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Connect words and ideas in books to prior knowledge

• Learn new words indirectly from reading books and other print sources

• Increase background knowledge by elaborating and integrating new vocabulary and ideas from texts

• Use a dictionary to learn the meanings of words

Comprehension Strategies

• Read grade-level texts for different purposes

• Use comprehension strategies (predict/confirm, reread, self-correct) to clarify meaning of text

• Work cooperatively with peers (e.g., peer pairs or small groups) to comprehend text

• Use graphic or semantic organizers to organize and categorize information

• Ask questions in response to texts

• Answer simple questions (such as how? why? what if?) in response to texts

• Sequence events in retelling stories

• Summarize main ideas from informational texts

• Follow simple written instructions

• Use own perspectives and opinions to comprehend text

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in reading a range of grade-level children’s texts from a variety of genres, such as stories, folktales, fairy tales, poems, and informational texts

• Read voluntarily familiar grade-level texts

• Show familiarity with title and author of grade-level books

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use classroom and library media center resources to acquire information, with assistance

• Read grade-level informational texts to begin to collect data, facts, and ideas, with assistance

• Distinguish between texts with stories and texts with information

• Use a picture dictionary as a resource for vocabulary development

• Select books to meet informational needs, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Comprehend and respond to imaginative texts and performances; interpret, with assistance

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to

   - select books, tapes, and poems on the basis of personal choice/interest or teacher-selected criteria, such as a theme/topic

   - predict what might happen next in a story read aloud or independently

   - draw conclusions from a story

   - identify characters, settings, and events in a story

   - retell a story

   - distinguish between what is real and what is imaginary

• Dramatize or retell stories, using puppets, toys, and other props

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Identify, explain, and evaluate ideas, themes, and experiences from texts and performances

• Engage in pre-reading and reading activities to

   - identify what they know, want to know, and have learned about a specific story, theme, or topic

   - predict what could happen next or the outcome of a story or article

   - change the sequence of events in a story to create a different ending

   - compare a character in a story or article to a person with the same career or experience

   - evaluate and select books, poems, or tapes on the basis of personal choice or teacher-selected criteria, such as theme, topic, author, and illustrations

   - identify the characters in a story and explain what each contributes to the events of the story

   - recognize different plots in books by the same author

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences (e.g., reading together silently or aloud) to establish, maintain, and enhance personal relationships with peers or adults

• Respect the age, gender, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the vocabulary of social communication (e.g., the language of salutations and closings)

 

Grade 1 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during grade 1 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that grade 1 students are developing as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Use developing knowledge of letter-sound correspondence (e.g., sound spelling or invented spelling) to spell independently grade-level decodable words, including words in word families

• Represent most phonemes in invented spelling, although not necessarily with conventional spellings (e.g., /k/ /a/ /t/ for cat)

• Use conventional spelling to spell common grade-level irregularly spelled content and high-frequency words

• Spell correctly three- and four-letter short vowel words

• Understand the difference between conventional spelling, and sound or invented spelling

Handwriting

• Write legibly most uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters

• Write letters legibly when dictated

Composition

• Write stories and informational text that establish a topic and use words that can be understood by others

• Write compositions, beginning to use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing)

• Use conventional capitalization and punctuation to begin and end sentences

• Write compositions for different purposes and include text, illustrations, and other graphics

 

Motivation to Write

• Write voluntarily to communicate to others

• Write voluntarily for different purposes (e.g., tell stories, share information, give directions, write to a friend)

• Share writing with others (e.g., participate in author’s circle)

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Copy words, phrases, and sentences from books, magazines, signs, charts, and own dictation

• Write data, facts, and ideas gathered from personal experiences

• Maintain a portfolio of informational writings and drawings, with assistance

• Take notes to record facts from lessons, with assistance

   - write words or draw pictures in order to capture important understandings

• State the main idea, with assistance

• Use resources such as a picture dictionary or word wall to find and write words, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Develop original literary texts to

   - create a story with a beginning, middle, and end, using words that can be understood by others

   - create poems or jingles, using words that can be understood by others

• Write to respond to text to

   - express feelings about characters or events in one or more stories

   - describe characters, settings, or events

   - list a sequence of events in a story

   - retell a story, using words

   - identify the problem and solution in a simple story

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings in response to literature, with assistance

• Use personal experiences to stimulate own writing, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Write to express opinions and judgments to share what they know, want to know, and have learned about a theme or topic

   - respond in words to an experience or event shared by a classmate

   - depict an opinion about statements, illustrations, characters, and events in written and visual texts

   - compare characters, settings, and events within and between stories

   - describe the differences between real and imaginary experiences

   - describe the connections between personal experiences and ideas and information in written and visual texts

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings that express opinions and judgments, with assistance

• Use prewriting tools, such as semantic webs and concept maps, to organize ideas and information, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers or adults; for example, write with a partner or in a cooperative group

• Respect the age, gender, and culture of the recipient

• Write friendly letters to others, using salutations and closings

• Maintain a portfolio of writings and drawings for social interaction, with assistance

 

Grade 1 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during grade 1 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific performance indicators that grade 1 students are developing as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to spoken language, including grade-level books read aloud

• Listen attentively for different purposes

• Listen respectfully without interrupting when others speak

• Attend to a listening activity for a specified period of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information from nonfiction text

• Identify words and sentences on a chart

• Follow directions involving a few steps

• Identify similarities and differences in information about people, places, and events

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Listen to literary texts and performances to

   - appreciate and enjoy literary works

   - match spoken words with pictures

   - identify a character, setting, plot

   - respond to vivid language

   - identify specific people, places, and events

   - distinguish between a story, a poem, and a play

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion and evaluate information on the basis of information in the world

• Identify messages in advertisements by listening to the words, music, and sound effects

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, and culture of the speaker

• Listen to friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives read aloud to get to know the writer and/or classmates and fellow listeners

• Listen for the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Grade 1 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards in which students are making adequate progress during grade 1 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

Specific perfromance indicators that grade 1 students are developing as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Use grade-level vocabulary and conventional grammar in own speech

• Speak for different purposes (e.g., share ideas or information, retell a story, dramatize an experience or event)

• Vary language style (e.g., formal or informal) according to purpose of communication (e.g., conversation with peers or presentation to a group)

• Speak audibly

• Speak with speed and expression appropriate to the purpose and audience

• Take turns in conversation or speaking in a group

• Respond appropriately to what others are saying

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Dictate information

• Report information to peers and familiar adults

• Connect information from personal experiences to information from nonfiction texts

• Retell multiple pieces of information in sequence; for example, retell a story

• Share observations from the classroom, home, or community

• Ask questions to clarify topics, directions, and/or classroom routines

• Respond orally to questions and/or directions

• Share information using appropriate visual aids (e.g. puppets, toys, and pictures) to illustrate a word or concept

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Converse with adults and peers regarding pictures, books, and experiences

• Role-play characters and events from stories

• Express feelings about works of fiction and poetry

• Respond to stories, legends, and songs from different cultural and ethnic groups

• Compare stories from personal experience with stories heard or read

• Express the mood or emotion of a story by using a variety of words

• Retell familiar stories in a logical sequence

• Ask for clarification of events in a story or poem

• Describe familiar persons, places, or objects

• Recite poems and nursery rhymes

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Share what they know, want to know, and have learned about a theme or topic

• Express an opinion or judgment about a story, poem, poster, or advertisement

• Compare characters, settings, or events in two or more stories

• Explain personal criteria (e.g., color, pictures, and vocabulary) for choosing a book, poem, or story

• Compare and contrast different versions of the same story

• Explain why two different characters view the same action or event differently

• Compare and contrast events or characters in a story with their lives

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate in small or large group storytelling, in order to interact with classmates and adults in the classroom and school environment

• Share favorite anecdotes, riddles, and rhymes with peers and familiar adults

• Respect the age, gender, and culture of the listener

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives, with a partner or in a small group, to get to know the writer and each other

 

Grades 2–4

Core Performance Indicators: common to all four ELA standards

Throughout grades 2, 3, and 4, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and

speaking.

Reading

• Identify purpose for reading

• Use letter-sound correspondence, knowledge of grammar, and overall context to determine meaning

• Use decoding strategies, such as sounding out words, comparing similar words, breaking words into smaller words, and looking for word parts, such as root words, prefixes, and suffixes

• Use self-monitoring strategies, such as rereading and cross-checking

• Apply corrective strategies, using classroom resources, such as teachers, peers, and reference tools

• Recognize the difference between phrases and sentences

• Read with attention to sentence structure and punctuation, such as periods, question marks, and commas, to assist in comprehension

• Engage in independent silent reading

• Locate the name of the author, illustrator, title page, table of contents, index, and chapter headings

• Recognize and discriminate among a variety of informational texts

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, dictionaries, and other classroom resources

• Read aloud at appropriate rate

• Read with increasing fluency and confidence from a variety of texts

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading goals and accomplishments

• Use computer software to support reading

Listening

• Listen respectfully and responsively

• Attend to a listening activity for an extended period of time

• Avoid interrupting

• Respond appropriately to what is heard

Writing

• Begin to develop a voice in writing

• Spell frequently used words correctly

• Use basic punctuation correctly, such as

   - commas in a series, in simple/compound sentences, and in friendly letters

   - periods, exclamation points, and question marks

   - apostrophes for contractions and singular possessives

   - quotation marks for titles and simple dialogue

• Use, in writing simple/compound sentences,

   - correct tense of regular/irregular verbs

   - subject-verb agreement

   - varied vocabulary and sentence structure

   - various parts of speech, including personal pronouns

• Capitalize words such as literary titles, holidays, and product names

• Write sentences in logical order and create paragraphs to develop ideas

• Use an organizational format that reflects a beginning, middle, and end

• Develop an idea within a brief text

• Learn and use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Use revision strategies to develop writing, including conferring with teachers and peers, and cutting and pasting

• Determine the intended audience before writing

• Use legible print and/or cursive writing

• Use word processing

Speaking

• Respond respectfully

• Initiate communication with peers and familiar adults

• Use age-appropriate vocabulary

• Speak in grammatically correct sentences

• Use gestures appropriate to conveying meaning

• Establish eye contact, when appropriate, to engage the audience

• Speak loudly enough to be heard by the audience

 

Grade 2 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 2 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 2 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Decoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis

• Identify and produce all letter-sound correspondences, including consonant blends/digraphs and vowel digraphs/diphthongs

• Blend sounds using knowledge of letter-sound correspondences in order to decode unfamiliar, but decodable, multisyllabic grade-level words

• Decode by analogy using knowledge of known words in word families to read unfamiliar grade-level words (e.g., given the known word boat, read coat, moat, goat)

• Decode grade-level words using knowledge of word structure (e.g., roots, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plurals, contractions, and compounds)

• Check accuracy of decoding using context to monitor and self-correct

Print Awareness

• Identify book parts and their purposes including identification of author, illustrator, title page, table of contents, index, and chapter headings

Fluency

• Sight-read automatically grade-level, common, high-frequency words

• Sight-read automatically grade-level texts with decodable and irregularly spelled words at appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression (target benchmark at grade 2: 82 WPM) (Davidson, M., & Towner, J. (2000). Reading Screening Test. Bellingham, WA: Applied Research and Development Center.)

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Study antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Study categories of words (e.g., transportation, sports) to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Study root words, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plural nouns, contractions, and compound words to learn new grade-level vocabulary

• Connect words and ideas in books to spoken language vocabulary and background knowledge

• Learn new words indirectly from reading books and other print sources.

• Use a dictionary to learn the meanings of words

Comprehension Strategies

• Read grade-level texts with comprehension and for different purposes

• Use comprehension strategies to monitor own reading (e.g., predict/confirm, reread, self-correct) to clarify meaning of text

• Work cooperatively with peers (e.g., peer pairs or groups) to comprehend text

• Organize text information by using graphic or semantic organizers

• Compare and contrast similarities and differences among characters and events across stories

• Compare and contrast similarities and differences in information from more than one informational text

• Comprehend and interpret information from a variety of graphic displays including diagrams, charts, and graphs

• Ask questions when listening to or reading texts

• Answer literal, inferential, and critical/application questions after listening to or reading imaginative and informational texts

• Summarize main ideas and supporting details from imaginative or informational text, both orally and in writing

• Support point of view with text information

• Lead or participate in discussion about grade-level books, integrating multiple strategies (e.g., ask questions, clarify misunderstandings, support point of view, summarize information)

• Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level text through creative response, such as writing, drama, and oral presentation

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in a wide range of grade-level texts, including historical fiction, science fiction, folktales, fairy tales, poetry, and other imaginative and informational texts

• Read voluntarily for own purposes and interests

• Show familiarity with the title and author of grade-level books

• Read independently and silently

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use library media resources to acquire information, with assistance

• Read unfamiliar informational texts to collect and interpret data, facts, and ideas, with assistance

• Read and understand written directions

• Locate information in a text that is needed to solve a problem, with assistance

• Identify main ideas and supporting details in informational texts, with assistance

• Recognize and use organizational features of texts, such as page numbers and chapter headings/subheadings, to locate information, with assistance

• Relate data and facts from informational texts to prior information and experience, with assistance

• Compare and contrast information on one topic from two different sources, with assistance

• Identify a conclusion that summarizes the main idea, with assistance

• Select books to meet informational needs, with assistance

• Identify and interpret facts taken from maps, graphs, charts, and other visuals, with assistance

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details from informational texts, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Select literature on the basis of personal needs and interests from a variety of genres and by different authors, with assistance

• Engage in purposeful oral reading in small and large groups

• Read print-based and electronic literary texts silently on a daily basis for enjoyment

• Recognize differences among the genres of stories, poems, and plays, with assistance

• Relate characters in literature to own lives, with assistance

• Explain the difference between fact and fiction, with assistance

• Use previous reading and life experiences to understand literature, with assistance

• Make predictions and draw conclusions and inferences about characters, with assistance

• Recognize the value of illustration in literary text

• Use specific evidence from stories to describe characters and relate sequences of events, with assistance

• Use knowledge of story structure and story elements to interpret stories, with assistance

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details to compare and contrast characters and events in stories, with assistance

• Summarize main ideas and supporting details from literary text, both orally and in writing, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate the content by identifying, with assistance

   - the author’s purpose

   - important and unimportant details

   - whether events, actions, characters, and/or setting are realistic

• Compare characters in literary works

• Judge the accuracy of content, with assistance from teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to build relationships with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., formal and informal vocabulary) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 2 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 2 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 2 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Spell correctly previously studied words (e.g., grade-level multisyllabic, decodable words; irregularly spelled content and high-frequency words) in writing

• Use spelling patterns (e.g., word families) in writing

• Represent all the sounds in a word when spelling independently

Handwriting

• Write legibly all uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters

Composition

• Write in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts

• Write a variety of compositions with assistance, using different organizational patterns (e.g., informational reports, such as compare/contrast, and sequence of events; correspondence; and imaginative stories)

• Write original text using the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing)

• Make judgments about relevant and irrelevant content to include in writing

• Write sentences in logical order and use paragraphs to organize topics

• Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling rules to produce final products

• Vary the formality of language depending on purpose of writing (e.g., friendly letter, report)

• Begin to convey personal voice in writing

• Participate in writing conferences with teachers and peers to improve own writing and that of others

Motivation to Read

• Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences

• Write voluntarily for different purposes (e.g., tell stories, share information, give directions)

• Share writing with others (e.g., participate in author’s circle)

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use two sources of information in writing a report

• Take notes to record facts by following teacher directions, with assistance

• State a main idea and support it with facts, with assistance

• Use organizational patterns, such as time/order, for expository writing

• Connect personal experiences to new information from school subject areas, with assistance

• Use spelling resources, such as dictionaries, word walls, and/or computer software, to spell words correctly

• Produce clear, well-organized, short reports to demonstrate understanding of a topic

• Support explanations with evidence from text

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Develop original literary texts that

- create characters, simple plot, and setting, with assistance

   - use rhythm and rhyme to create short poems and songs, with assistance

   - use descriptive language

• Write interpretive and responsive essays that

   - identify the title, author, and illustrator

   - describe literary elements, such as plot and characters, with assistance

   - express a personal response to literature

• Create clear, well-organized responses to stories read or listened to, supporting understanding of genres, characters, and events with details from the story, with assistance

• Create imaginative stories and personal narratives that show development and organization, with assistance

• Use resources such as personal experiences to stimulate own writing

• Use a computer to create, research, and interpret literary texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes imaginative writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Use prewriting tools, such as semantic webs and concept maps, to organize ideas and information

• State a main idea and provide supporting details from the text

• Use relevant examples, such as reasons to support ideas, with assistance

• Express opinions and make judgments that demonstrate a personal point of view, with assistance

• Analyze and evaluate the author’s use of plot and character in written and visual text

• Use effective vocabulary in expository writing, with assistance

• Use details from stories or informational texts to predict events

• Maintain a portfolio that includes written analysis and evaluation as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write with a partner

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Use the tone, vocabulary, and sentence structure of informal conversation, with assistance

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social interaction as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

 

Grade 2 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 2 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 2 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to spoken language, including grade-level books read aloud

• Listen attentively for different purposes

• Listen respectfully without interrupting when others speak

• Attend to a listening activity for a specified period of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information and/or understand procedures

• Identify essential details, with assistance

• Determine a sequence of steps given, with assistance

• Identify main ideas and supporting details, with assistance

• Interpret information by drawing on prior knowledge and experience, with assistance

• Collect information, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Identify elements of character, plot, and setting to understand the author’s message, with assistance

• Connect literary texts to previous life experiences to enhance understanding

• Identify the author’s use of repetition and rhyme

• Use note taking and graphic organizers to record and organize information and ideas recalled from stories read aloud, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form a personal opinion about the quality of texts read aloud, on the basis of criteria, such as characters and plot

• Form an opinion about the message of advertisements, on the basis of the language used

• Distinguish between fact and opinion, with assistance

• Evaluate the speaker’s style of delivery by using criteria such as volume and tone of voice

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and culture of the speaker

• Listen to friendly notes, cards, longer letters, and narratives read aloud to get to know the writer and/or classmates and fellow listeners

• Listen for the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Grade 2 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 2 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 2 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts

• Use grade-level vocabulary to communicate ideas, emotions, or experiences for different purposes (e.g., share ideas about personal experience, books, or writing)

• Use conventional grammar in own speech

• Vary formality of language according to purpose (e.g., conversation with peers, presentation to adults)

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and facial or body gestures appropriate to the purpose of communication, topic, and audience

• Take turns in conversation and respond respectfully when speaking in a group

• Participate in group discussions

• Offer feedback to others during conferences

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Provide simple directions

• Express an opinion

• Ask questions

• Summarize, with assistance

• Provide a sequence of steps

• Describe a problem and suggest a solution

• State a main idea with supporting examples and details, with assistance

• Present a short oral report, using at least one source of information, such as a person, book, magazine article, television program, or electronic text

• Use complete sentences, using age- and content-appropriate vocabulary

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present original works, such as stories, poems, and plays, to classmates

• Describe characters

• Compare literary texts and performances to personal experiences and prior knowledge, with assistance

• Identify cultural and ethnic features in literary texts

• Ask questions to clarify literary texts and performances

• Use complete sentences, correct verb tense, age-appropriate vocabulary, and logical order in oral presentation

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Explain the reasons for a character’s actions, considering the situation

• Express an opinion or judgment about a character and plot in a variety of works, with assistance

• Discuss the impact of illustrations and titles in evaluating ideas, information, and experiences

• Use personal experience and knowledge to analyze new ideas

• Role-play to communicate an interpretation of real or imaginary people or events

• Ask and respond to questions

• Speak with appropriate rate and volume for the audience

• Take turns speaking in a group

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener when speaking

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narratives, with a partner or small group, in order to get to know the writer and each other

• Avoid interrupting in social conversation

 

Grade 3 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 3 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 3 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Decoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis

• Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondence to blend sounds when reading unfamiliar, but decodable,

grade-level words

• Decode by analogy using knowledge of syllable patterns (e.g., CVC, CVCC, CVVC) to read unfamiliar words, including multisyllabic grade-level words that are part of word families

• Decode grade-level words using knowledge of word structure (e.g., roots, prefixes, suffixes, verb endings, plurals, contractions, and compounds)

Fluency

• Sight-read automatically grade-level

high-frequency words and irregularly spelled content words

• Read grade-level texts with decodable and irregularly spelled words at appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression (target benchmark at grade 3: 115 WPM) (Davidson, M., & Towner, J. (2000). Reading Screening Test. Bellingham, WA: Applied Research and Development Center.)

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Study categories of words to learn grade-level vocabulary

• Analyze word structure (e.g., roots, prefixes, suffixes) to learn word meaning

• Connect words and ideas in books to spoken language vocabulary and background

knowledge

• Learn new vocabulary and concepts indirectly by reading books and other print sources

• Identify specific words causing comprehension difficulties in oral or written language

• Use a dictionary to learn the meanings of words and a thesaurus to identify synonyms and antonyms

Comprehension Strategies

• Read grade-level texts with comprehension and for different purposes

• Use comprehension strategies to monitor own reading (e.g., predict/confirm, reread, attend to vocabulary, self-correct) to clarify meaning of text

• Work cooperatively with peers to comprehend text

• Organize and categorize text information by using knowledge of a variety of text structures (e.g., cause and effect, fact and opinion, directions, time sequence)

• Use knowledge of structure of imaginative text to identify and interpret plot, character, and events

• Listen to or read grade-level texts and ask questions to clarify understanding

• Listen to or read grade-level texts and answer literal, inferential, and critical/application questions

• Summarize main ideas of informational text and details from imaginative text orally and in writing

• Support point of view with details from the text

• Lead and participate in discussion about grade-level texts by integrating multiple strategies (e.g., ask questions, clarify misunderstandings, support point of view, summarize information)

• Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level text through creative responses, such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

• Infer underlying theme or message of written text

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in a wide range of grade-level texts, including historical and science fiction, folktales

and fairy tales, poetry, and other imaginative and informational texts

• Read voluntarily for own purposes and interests

• Show familiarity with titles and authors of well-known grade-level literature

• Read independently and silently, including longer fiction and chapter books

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use library media resources to acquire information, with assistance

• Read unfamiliar texts to collect data, facts, and ideas

• Read and understand written directions

• Locate information in a text that is needed to solve a problem

• Identify main ideas and supporting details in informational texts

• Recognize and use organizational features, such as table of contents, indexes, page numbers, and chapter headings/subheadings, to locate information, with assistance

• Use text features, such as captions, charts, tables, graphs, maps, notes, and other visuals, to understand informational texts, with assistance

• Relate data and facts from informational texts to prior information and experience

• Compare and contrast information on one topic from two different sources

• Identify a conclusion that summarizes the main idea

• Identify and interpret facts taken from maps, graphs, charts, and other visuals

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details from informational texts

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Select literature on the basis of personal needs and interests from a variety of genres and by different authors

• Engage in purposeful oral reading in small and large groups

• Read print-based and electronic literary texts silently on a daily basis for enjoyment

• Recognize the differences among the genres of stories, poems, and plays

• Relate the setting, plot, and characters in literature to own lives, with assistance

• Explain the difference between fact and fiction

• Use previous reading and life experiences to understand and compare literature

• Make predictions, draw conclusions, and make inferences about events and characters

• Identify cultural influences in texts and performances, with assistance

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading accomplishments

• Use specific evidence from stories to describe characters, their actions, and their motivations; relate sequences of events

• Use knowledge of story structure, story elements, and key vocabulary to interpret stories

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details about characters and events in stories

• Summarize main ideas and supporting details from imaginative texts, both orally and in writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate the content by identifying

   - the author’s purpose

   - important and unimportant details

   - whether events, actions, characters, and/or settings are realistic

   - statements of fact and opinion

• Compare and contrast characters, plot, and setting in literary works, with assistance

• Analyze information on the basis of new or prior knowledge and/or personal experience

• Recognize how language and illustrations are used to persuade in printed and filmed advertisements, with assistance

• Judge accuracy of content to gather facts, with assistance from teachers and parents/caregivers

• Use opinions of teachers and classmates to evaluate personal interpretation of ideas and information

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to build relationships with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary and jargon) that is appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 3 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 3 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 3 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Spell correctly previously studied decodable and irregularly spelled words and spelling patterns in own writing

Handwriting

• Write legibly all uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters

• Write legibly all uppercase and lowercase cursive letters

Composition

• Write in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts

• Write a variety of compositions, such as literary responses and informational reports, using different organizational patterns (e.g., cause and effect, compare/contrast)

• Write in a variety of formats, such as print and multimedia

• Write stories and reports using the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing)

• Use grade-level vocabulary and sentence patterns in writing

• Write sentences in logical order and use paragraphs to organize topics

• Review work independently for spelling

and conventional capitalization and punctuation

• Vary the formality of language depending on audience and purpose of writing (e.g., friendly letter, report)

• Convey personal voice in writing

• Begin to use literary elements in creative writing (e.g., figurative language)

• Combine information from multiple sources when writing reports

• Present and discuss own writing in conferences with teacher and peers, and respond with feedback

Motivation to Write

• Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences

• Write voluntarily for different purposes (e.g., tell stories, share information, give directions)

• Publish writing for classroom or school display

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use at least two sources of information in writing a report

• Take notes to record data, facts, and ideas, following teacher direction

• State a main idea and support it with facts and details

• Use organizational patterns such as compare/contrast and time/order for expository writing

• Connect personal experiences to new information from school subject areas

• Use a variety of resources to support spelling, such as dictionaries and spell-check tools in word processing programs

• Produce clear, well-organized reports and accounts that demonstrate understanding of a topic

• Support interpretations and explanations with evidence from text

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

• Compare and contrast ideas between two sources, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Develop original literary texts that

   - contain characters, simple plot, and setting

   - use rhythm and rhyme to create short poems and songs

   - use dialogue

   - use vivid language

   - use descriptive language to create an image

• Write interpretive and responsive essays that

   - describe literary elements such as plot, setting, and characters

   - express a personal response

   - describe themes of literary texts, with assistance

   - compare and contrast elements of texts, with assistance

• Produce clear, well-organized responses to stories read or listened to, supporting the understanding of characters and events with details from story

• Produce imaginative stories and personal narratives that show development, organization, and effective language

• Use resources such as personal experiences and elements from other texts and performances to stimulate own writing

• Use computer to create and respond to literary texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes imaginative and interpretive writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Use a variety of prewriting tools to organize ideas and information

• State a main idea, theme, or opinion and provide supporting details from the text

• Use relevant examples, reasons, and explanations to support ideas

• Express opinions and make judgments that demonstrate a personal point of view

• Use personal experiences and knowledge to analyze new ideas

• Analyze the author’s use of setting, plot, character, rhyme, and rhythm in written and visual text

• Create an advertisement, using words and pictures, to illustrate an opinion about a product

• Use effective vocabulary in expository writing

• Use details from stories or informational texts to predict or explain relationships between information and events

• Use ideas from two sources of information to generalize about causes, effects, or other relationships

• Maintain a portfolio that includes written analysis and evaluation as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write with a partner

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer, with assistance

• Use the tone, vocabulary, and sentence structure of informal conversation

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social interaction as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

 

Grade 3 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 3 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 3 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to books read aloud

• Listen attentively for different purposes

• Listen respectfully, without interrupting, when others speak

• Attend to a listening activity for a specified period of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information and/or understand procedures

• Identify essential details

• Determine a sequence of steps given

• Identify main ideas and supporting details

• Identify a conclusion that summarizes the main idea, with assistance

• Interpret information by drawing upon prior knowledge and experience

• Collect information

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Identify elements of character, plot, and setting to understand the author’s message or intent

• Connect literary texts to personal experiences and previously encountered texts to enhance understanding and appreciation

• Identify the author’s use of rhythm, repetition, and rhyme

• Use note taking and graphic organizers to record and organize information and ideas recalled from stories read aloud

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form a personal opinion about the quality of texts read aloud on the basis of criteria such as characters, plot, and setting

• Recognize the perspective of others, with assistance

• Distinguish between fact and opinion

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, position, and culture of the speaker

• Get to know the writer through friendly notes, cards, longer letters, and personal narratives read aloud to classmates and fellow listeners

• Identify the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Grade 3 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 3 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 3 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts

• Use grade-level vocabulary to communicate orally ideas, emotions, or experiences for different purposes (e.g., share ideas about personal experience, books, or writing)

• Use conventional grammar

• Recognize what is relevant and irrelevant for a particular audience

• Communicate ideas in an organized and cohesive manner

• Vary formality of language according to purpose (e.g., conversation with peers, presentation to adults)

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and facial or body gestures appropriate to the purpose of communication, topic, and audience

• Take turns in conversation and respond respectfully when speaking in a group

• Participate in group discussions

• Offer feedback to others during conferences

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Provide directions

• Ask questions

• Summarize, with assistance

• Describe a problem and suggest one or more solutions

• State a main idea with supporting details

• Present a short oral report, using at least two sources of information, such as a person, book, magazine article, or electronic text

- speak loudly enough to be heard by the audience

• Use complete sentences, using age- and content-appropriate vocabulary

• Use logical order in presentations

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present original works, such as stories, poems, and plays, to classmates

• Give book reviews, with assistance

• Describe characters and plot

• Make inferences

• Compare literary texts and performances to personal experiences and prior knowledge

• Explain cultural and ethnic features in literary texts, with assistance

• Ask questions to clarify and interpret literary texts and performance

• Discuss themes of literary texts, with assistance

• Use complete sentences, correct verb tense, age-appropriate vocabulary, and logical order in oral presentation

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Explain the reasons for a character’s actions, considering both the situation and motivation of the character

• Express an opinion or judgment about a character, setting, and plot in a variety of works

• Discuss the impact of format, illustrations, and titles in evaluating ideas, information, and experiences

• Express an opinion about school and community issues

• Analyze and evaluate new ideas by using personal experiences and knowledge

• Express an opinion, supporting it with text, about the accuracy of the content of literary works

• Communicate an interpretation of real or imaginary people or events through role play

• Use appropriate eye contact and gestures in presentations and responses

• Speak with appropriate rate and volume for the audience

• Take turns speaking in a group

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener when speaking

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narrative, with a partner or small group, in order to get to know the writer and each other

• Use the rules of conversation, such as avoid interrupting and respond respectfully

 

Grade 4 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 4 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 4 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Decoding Including Phonics and Structural Analysis

• Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondence to blend sounds when reading unfamiliar but decodable words

• Use decoding strategies (e.g., knowledge of syllable patterns, decoding by analogy and word structure) to read unfamiliar words

• Identify unfamiliar words using syntactic (grammar) cues

• Identify unfamiliar words using semantic (meaning) cues

• Integrate sources of information when word reading to decode and

cross-check

Fluency

• Sight-read automatically high-frequency words and irregularly spelled content words

• Read with confidence from a variety of grade-level texts with appropriate speed, accuracy, and expression

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Learn grade-level vocabulary through a variety of means

• Use word structure such as roots, prefixes, and suffixes to determine meaning

• Use prior knowledge and experience in order to understand ideas and vocabulary found in books

• Acquire new vocabulary by reading books and other print sources

• Use self-monitoring strategies to identify specific vocabulary that cause comprehension difficulties

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, dictionaries, and other resources

• Use a thesaurus to identify synonyms and antonyms

Comprehension Strategies

• Read a variety of grade-level texts with understanding

• Use self-monitoring strategies, such as rereading, attending to vocabulary, and cross-checking, to determine meaning of text

• Work cooperatively with others to determine meaning

• Use text structure to recognize differences among a variety of texts

• Ask questions to clarify understanding of grade-level texts

• Read grade-level texts and answer literal, inferential, and evaluative questions

• State a main idea and support it with details from the text

• State a point of view and support it with details from the text

• Participate in discussions about grade-level texts

• Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level texts through a variety of responses, such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

• Recognize the theme or message of a text

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in a wide range of grade-level texts, both literary and informational

• Read voluntarily for differing purposes

• Be familiar with titles and authors of well-known grade-level texts

• Engage in independent silent reading

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information by locating and using library media resources, with some assistance

• Collect and interpret data, facts, and ideas from unfamiliar texts

• Understand written directions and procedures

• Locate information in a text that is needed to solve a problem

• Identify a main idea and supporting details in informational texts

• Recognize and use organizational features, such as table of contents, indexes, page numbers, and chapter headings/subheadings, to locate information

• Compare and contrast information on one topic from two different sources

• Identify a conclusion that summarizes the main idea

• Select books independently to meet informational needs

• Make inferences and draw conclusions on the basis of information from the text, with assistance

• Use text features, such as captions, charts, tables, graphs, maps, notes, and other visuals, to understand and interpret informational texts

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details from informational texts

• Use text features, such as headings, captions, and titles, to understand and interpret informational texts, with assistance

• Distinguish between fact and opinion, with assistance

• Identify missing information and irrelevant information, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Select literature on the basis of personal needs and interests from a variety of genres and by different authors

• Engage in purposeful oral reading in small and large groups

• Read print-based and electronic literary texts silently, on a daily basis, for enjoyment

• Relate the setting, plot, and characters in literature to own lives

• Explain the difference between fact and fiction

• Make predictions, draw conclusions, and make inferences about events and characters

• Identify cultural influences in texts and performances

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading accomplishments

• Use specific evidence from stories to identify themes; describe characters, their actions, and their motivations; relate a sequence of events

• Use knowledge of story structure, story elements, and key vocabulary to interpret stories

• Read, view, and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres, with assistance

• Define the characteristics of different genres, with assistance

• Identify literary elements, such as setting, plot, and character, of different genres, with assistance

• Recognize how the author uses literary devices, such as simile, metaphor, and personification, to create meaning, with assistance

• Recognize how different authors treat similar themes, with assistance

• Identify literary elements, such as setting, plot, and character, of different genres, with assistance

• Use graphic organizers to record significant details about characters and events in stories

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate the content by identifying

   - the author’s purpose

   - whether events, actions, characters, and/or settings are realistic

   - important and unimportant details

   - statements of fact, opinion, and exaggeration, with assistance

   - recurring themes across works in print and media

• Compare and contrast characters, plot, and setting in literary works

• Analyze ideas and information on the basis of prior knowledge and personal experience

• Recognize how language and illustrations are used to persuade in printed and filmed advertisements and in texts, such as letters to the editor

• Judge accuracy of content to gather facts, with assistance from teachers and parents/caregivers

• Use opinions and reactions of teachers and classmates to evaluate personal interpretation of ideas, information, and experience

• Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes in texts by identifying, with assistance,

   - a central idea and supporting details

   - missing or unclear information

• Identify different perspectives, such as social, cultural, ethnic, and historical, on an issue presented in more than one text, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to build relationships with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary and jargon) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 4 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 4 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 4 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Correctly spell words within own writing that have been previously studied and/or frequently used

• Correctly spell words within own writing that follow the spelling patterns of words previously studied

Handwriting

• Use legible print and/or cursive writing

Composition

• Respond in writing to prompts that follow the reading of literary and informational texts

• Write in a variety of styles, using different organizational patterns, such as chronological order, cause/effect, and compare/contrast

• Use a variety of media, such as print and electronic, when writing

• Write a variety of compositions, using the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing)

• Use grade-level vocabulary and varied sentence structure

• Develop ideas by writing sentences that are in logical order and organized into paragraphs

• Review writing independently in order to edit for the correct use of grade-appropriate spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and verb tense

• Vary the tone, vocabulary, and sentence structure according to the audience and purpose of writing

• Exhibit personal voice when writing

• Begin to use literary devices such as simile and figurative language

• Use at least two sources of information when writing a report

• Review writing with teachers and peers and be able to respond to feedback

Motivation to Write

• Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences

• Write voluntarily for different purposes

• Publish writing suitable for a variety of display purposes, such as within a classroom, or school, or on the Internet

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Take notes to record data, facts, and ideas both by following teacher direction and by writing independently

• State a main idea and support it with details

• Use organizational patterns such as compare/contrast, cause/effect, and time/order, for expository writing

• Use a variety of resources, such as age-appropriate dictionaries and/or computer software, to spell words correctly

• Produce clear, well-organized, and well-developed explanations, reports, accounts, and directions that demonstrate understanding of a topic

• Support interpretations and explanations with evidence from text

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/

caregivers

• Compare and contrast ideas and information from two sources

• Write labels and captions for graphics to convey information, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts that

   - use dialogue to create short plays

   - use vivid and playful language

• Write interpretive and responsive essays that

   - describe literary elements such as plot, setting, and characters

   - describe themes of literary texts

   - compare and contrast elements of texts

• Produce clear, well-organized responses to stories read or listened to, supporting the understanding of characters and events with details from the story

• Produce imaginative stories and personal narratives that show insight, development, organization, and effective language

• Use resources such as personal experiences and themes from the text and performances to stimulate own writing

• Use a computer to create, respond to, and interpret literary texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes literary and interpretive writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

• Summarize the plot, with assistance

• Describe the characters and explain how they change, with assistance

• Describe the setting and recognize its importance to the story, with assistance

• Draw a conclusion about the work, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Use prewriting strategies, such as semantic webs and Venn diagrams, to organize ideas and information and to plan writing

• State a main idea, theme, or opinion and provide supporting details

• Use relevant examples, reasons, and explanations to support ideas

• Express opinions and make judgments that demonstrate a personal point of view

• Use personal experiences and knowledge to analyze and evaluate new ideas

• Analyze and evaluate the author’s use of setting, plot, character, rhyme, rhythm, and language in written and visual text

• Use effective vocabulary in persuasive and expository writing

• Use details from stories or informational texts to predict, explain, or show relationships between information and events

• Use ideas from two or more sources of information to generalize about causes, effects, or other relationships

• Maintain a portfolio that includes written analysis and evaluation as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write with a partner

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social interaction as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers

 

Grade 4 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 4 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 4 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively and respond appropriately to books read aloud

• Listen attentively for different purposes and for an extended period of time

• Respond appropriately to what is heard

• Listen respectfully, and without interrupting, when others speak

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Acquire information and/or understand procedures

• Identify a main idea, essential details, and supporting details

• Determine a sequence of steps given

• Identify a conclusion that summarizes the main idea

• Interpret information by drawing upon prior knowledge and experience

• Distinguish between fact and opinion, with assistance

• Identify information that is implicit, rather than stated, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Identify elements of character, plot, and setting to understand the author’s message or intent

• Compare and contrast ideas of others to own ideas

• Use note taking and graphic organizers to record and organize information and ideas recalled from stories read aloud

• Identify a character’s motivation, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Distinguish between information in media texts, such as live news coverage, and in fictional material, such as dramatic productions

• Recognize the perspective of others

   - distinguish between fact, opinion, and exaggeration

• Form an opinion on a subject on the basis of information, ideas, and themes expressed in presentations, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, position, and culture of the speaker

• Listen to friendly notes, cards, longer letters, and personal narratives read aloud to get to know the writer and/or classmates and fellow listeners

• Listen for the tone of voice and content that signal friendly communication

 

Grade 4 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 4 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 4 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in response to the reading of a variety of texts

• Use age-appropriate vocabulary to communicate ideas

• Use grammatically correct sentences when speaking

• Include details that are relevant for the audience

• Communicate ideas in an organized and cohesive manner

• Vary the formality of language according to the audience and purpose for speaking

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and gestures appropriate for the audience and purpose of communication

• Respond respectfully and avoid interrupting when speaking in a group

• Participate in group discussions on a variety of topics

• Offer feedback to others

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Ask clarifying questions

• Summarize

• State a main idea with supporting examples and details

• Explain a line of reasoning

• Present a short oral report, using a variety of sources

   - speak loudly enough to be heard by the audience

   - use gestures appropriate to convey meaning

• Use complete sentences, using age- and

content-appropriate vocabulary

• Use logical order in presentations

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present original works, such as stories, poems, and plays, to classmates

• Give book reviews

• Describe characters, setting, and plot

• Make inferences and draw conclusions

• Explain cultural and ethnic features in literary texts

• Ask questions to clarify and interpret literary texts and performances and respond to the questions of classmates

• Use complete sentences, correct verb tense, age-appropriate vocabulary, and logical order in oral presentation

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Discuss the impact of vocabulary, format, illustrations, and titles in evaluating ideas, information, and experiences

• Express an opinion about school and community issues

• Express an opinion about the accuracy of the content of literary works, editorials, reviews, and advertisements supported by the text

• Speak with appropriate rate and volume for the audience

• Take turns speaking in a group

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the listener when speaking

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, letters, and personal narrative, with a partner or small group, in order to get to know the writer and each other

• Use the rules of conversation, such as avoid interrupting and respond respectfully

 

Grades 5–6

Core Performance Indicators: common to all four ELA standards

Throughout grades 5 and 6, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

Reading

• Identify purpose of reading

• Adjust reading rate according to purpose for reading

• Use word recognition and context clues to read fluently

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, a dictionary, or a glossary

• Identify signal words, such as finally or in addition, that provide clues to organizational formats such as time order

• Use knowledge of punctuation to assist in comprehension

• Apply corrective strategies (e.g., rereading and discussion with teachers, peers, or

parents/caregivers) to assist in comprehension

• Read aloud, using inflection and intonation appropriate to text read and to audience

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading goals and accomplishments

Listening

• Listen respectfully and responsively

• Identify own purpose for listening

• Recognize content-specific vocabulary or terminology

• Listen for unfamiliar words and learn their meaning

Speaking

• Respond respectfully

• Initiate communication with peers, teachers, and others in the school community

• Use language and grammar appropriate to purpose for speaking

• Use facial expressions and gestures that enhance communication

• Establish eye contact during presentations and group discussions

• Use audible voice and pacing appropriate to content and audience

• Use visual aids to support the presentation

Writing

• Understand the purpose for writing; the purpose may be to explain, describe, narrate, persuade, or express feelings

• Determine the intended audience before writing

• Use tone and language appropriate for audience and purpose

• Use prewriting activities (e.g., brainstorming, note taking, freewriting, outlining, and paragraphing)

• Use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Use teacher conferences and peer review to revise written work

• Observe the rules of punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, such as

   - punctuation of compound sentences, friendly/business letters, simple dialogue, and exact words from sources (quotations); use italics/underlining for titles

   - capitalization of proper nouns such as key words in literary and/or book titles, languages, and historical events

   - spelling of commonly misspelled words, homonyms, and content-area vocabulary

• Use correct grammatical construction in

   - parts of speech such as nouns; adjectives and adverbs (comparative/ superlative); pronouns (indefinite/ nominative/objective); conjunctions (coordinating/ subordinating); prepositions and prepositional phrases; and interjections

   - simple/compound/complex sentences, using, correct subject-verb agreement, verb tense, punctuation, and pronouns with clear antecedents

• Use signal/transitional words (e.g., in addition, for example, finally, as a result, similarly, and on the other hand) to provide clues to organizational format

• Use dictionaries, thesauruses, and style manuals

• Use word processing skills

 

Grade 5 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 5 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 5 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Word Recognition

• Use knowledge of a variety of decoding strategies, such as letter-sound correspondence, syllable patterns, decoding by analogy, word structure, use of syntactic (grammar) cues, and use of semantic (meaning) cues, to read unfamiliar words

• Integrate sources of information to decode unfamiliar words and to cross-check, self-correcting when appropriate

• Use word recognition skills and strategies, accurately and automatically, when decoding unfamiliar words

• Recognize at sight a large body of high-frequency words and irregularly spelled content vocabulary

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Learn grade-level vocabulary through both direct and indirect means

• Use word structure knowledge, such as roots, prefixes, and suffixes, to determine meaning

• Use prior knowledge and experience in order to understand ideas and vocabulary found in books

• Acquire new vocabulary by reading a variety of texts

• Use self-monitoring strategies to identify specific vocabulary that causes comprehension difficulties

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, dictionaries, glossaries, and other resources

• Use a thesaurus to identify synonyms and antonyms

Comprehension Strategies

• Read a variety of grade-level texts, for a variety of purposes, with understanding

• Use self-monitoring strategies, such as cross-checking, summarizing, and self-questioning, to construct meaning of text

• Recognize when comprehension has been disrupted and initiate self-correction strategies, such as rereading, adjusting rate of reading, and attending to specific vocabulary

• Use knowledge of text structures to recognize and discriminate differences among a variety of texts and to support understanding

• Ask questions to clarify understanding and to focus reading

• Make connections between text being read and own lives, the lives of others, and other texts read in the past

• Use prior knowledge in concert with text information to support comprehension, from forming predictions to making inferences and drawing conclusions

• Read grade-level texts and answer literal, inferential, and evaluative questions

• State or summarize a main idea and

support/elaborate with relevant details

• Present a point of view or interpretation of a text, such as its theme, and support it with significant details from the text

• Participate cooperatively and collaboratively in group discussions of texts

• Note and describe aspects of the writer’s craft

• Read aloud, accurately and fluently, with appropriate rate of reading, intonation, and inflection

• Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level texts through a range of responses, such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in a wide range of texts, topics, and genres for reading

• Read voluntarily for a variety of purposes

• Be familiar with titles and authors of a wide range of literature

• Engage in independent silent reading for extended periods of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources, with some direction, to acquire information

• Use the table of contents and indexes to locate information

• Read to collect and interpret data, facts, and ideas from multiple sources

• Read the steps in a procedure in order to accomplish a task such as completing a science experiment

• Skim material to gain an overview of content or locate specific information

• Use text features, such as headings, captions, and titles, to understand and interpret informational texts

• Recognize organizational formats to assist in comprehension of informational texts

• Identify missing information and irrelevant information

• Distinguish between fact and opinion

• Identify information that is implied rather than stated

• Compare and contrast information on one topic from multiple sources

• Recognize how new information is related to prior knowledge or experience

• Identify main ideas and supporting details in informational texts to distinguish relevant and irrelevant information

• Make inferences and draw conclusions, on the basis of information from the text, with assistance

• Identify information that is implied rather than stated, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read, view, and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres

• Define characteristics of different genres

• Select literary texts on the basis of personal needs and interests and read silently for enjoyment for extended periods

• Read aloud from a variety of genres; for example, read the lines of a play or recite a poem

   - use inflection and intonation appropriate to text read and audience

• Recognize that the same story can be told in different genres, such as novels, poems, or plays, with assistance

• Identify literary elements, such as setting, plot, and character, of different genres

• Recognize how the author uses literary devices, such as simile, metaphor, and personification, to create meaning

• Recognize how different authors treat similar themes

• Identify the ways in which characters change and develop throughout a story

• Compare characters in literature to people in own lives

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes in texts by identifying

   - a central idea and supporting details

   - details that are primary and those that are less important

   - statements of fact, opinion, and exaggeration

   - missing or unclear information

• Use established criteria to analyze the quality of information in text

• Identify different perspectives, such as social, cultural, ethnic, and historical, on an issue presented in one or more than one text

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to build a relationship with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud with a partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize conversational tone in friendly communication

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., jargon, informal vocabulary, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 5 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 5 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 5 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Correctly spell words within own writing that have been previously studied and/or frequently used

• Correctly spell words within own writing that follow the spelling patterns of words that have been previously studied

• Spell a large body of words accurately and quickly when writing

• Use a variety of spelling resources, such as spelling dictionaries and spell-check tools, to support correct spelling

Handwriting

• Use legible print and/or cursive writing

Composition

• Respond in writing to prompts that follow the reading of literary and informational texts

• Respond to writing prompts that follow listening to literary and informational texts

• Write on a wide range of topics

• Understand and use writing for a variety of purposes

• Use a variety of different organizational patterns for writing, such as chronological order, cause/effect, compare/contrast

• Use a variety of media, such as print and electronic, when writing

• Use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Use a variety of prewriting strategies, such as brainstorming, freewriting, note taking, and webbing

• Review writing independently in order to revise for focus, development of ideas, and organization

• Review writing independently in order to edit for correct spelling, grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and paragraphing

• Understand and write for a variety of audiences

• Adjust style of writing, voice, and language used according to purpose and intended audience

• Incorporate aspects of the writer’s craft, such as literary devices and specific voice, into own writing

• Use multiple sources of information when writing a report

• Review writing with teachers and peers

Motivation to Write

• Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences, from self to unknown

• Write voluntarily for different purposes

• Write on a variety of topics

• Publish writing in a variety of presentation or display mediums, for a variety of audiences

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use at least three sources of information in writing a report, with assistance

• Take notes to record and organize relevant data, facts, and ideas, with assistance, and use notes as part of prewriting activities

• State a main idea and support it with details and examples

• Compare and contrast ideas and information from two sources

• Write labels or captions for graphics, such as charts, graphs, and diagrams, to convey information

• Adopt an organizational format, such as chronological order, that is appropriate for informational writing

• Use paragraphing to organize ideas and information, with assistance

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Develop original literary texts that

   - use organizing structures such as stanzas and chapters

   - create a lead that attracts the reader’s interest

   - provide a title that interests the reader

   - develop characters and establish a plot

   - use examples of literary devices, such as rhyme, rhythm, and simile

   - establish consistent point of view (e.g., first or third person) with assistance

• Write interpretive essays that

   - summarize the plot

   - describe the characters and how they change

   - describe the setting and recognize its importance to the story

   - draw a conclusion about the work

   - interpret the impact of literary devices, such as simile and personification

   - recognize the impact of rhythm and rhyme in poems

• Respond to literature, connecting the response to personal experience

• Use resources, such as personal experiences and themes from other texts and performances, to plan and create literary texts

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Use strategies, such as note taking, semantic webbing, or mapping, to plan and organize writing

• Use supporting evidence from text to evaluate ideas, information, themes, or experiences

• Analyze the impact of an event or issue from personal and peer group perspectives

• Analyze literary elements in order to evaluate the quality of ideas and information in text

• Use information and ideas from other subject areas and personal experiences to form and express opinions

• Adapt an organizational format, such as compare/contrast, appropriate for critical analysis and evaluation, with assistance

• Use precise vocabulary in writing analysis and evaluation, with assistance

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get-well card, or thank-you letter with a writing partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer

• Write personal reactions to experiences and events, using a form of social communication

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social communication

 

Grade 5 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 5 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 5 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively to a variety of texts read aloud

• Listen attentively for different purposes and for an extended period of time

• Identify own purpose(s) for listening

• Respond appropriately to what is heard

• Listen respectfully, and without interrupting, when others speak

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Follow instructions that provide information about a task or assignment

• Identify essential details for note taking

• Distinguish between fact and opinion

• Identify information that is implicit rather than stated

• Connect new information to prior knowledge or experience

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Distinguish different genres, such as story, biography, poem, or play, with assistance

• Identify a character’s motivation

• Recognize the use of literary devices, such as simile, personification, rhythm, and rhyme, in presentation of literary texts

• Use personal experience and prior knowledge to interpret and respond to literary texts and performances

• Identify cultural and historical influences in texts and performances, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion on a subject on the basis of information, ideas, and themes expressed in presentations

• Recognize and use the perspective of others to analyze presentations

• Use prior knowledge and experiences to analyze the content of presentations

• Recognize persuasive presentations and identify the techniques used to accomplish that purpose, with assistance

• Evaluate the quality of the speaker’s presentation style by using criteria such as volume, tone of voice, and rate

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Recognize friendly communication on the basis of volume and tone of the speaker’s voice

• Recognize that social communication may include informal language such as jargon

• Recognize the meaning of the speaker’s nonverbal cues

 

Grade 5 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 5 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 5 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in response to the reading of a variety of texts

• Use appropriate and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas

• Use grammatically correct sentences when speaking

• Include details that are relevant for the audience

• Communicate ideas in an organized and coherent manner

• Vary the formality of language according to the audience and purpose for speaking

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and gestures appropriate for the topic, audience, and purpose of communication

• Respond respectfully to others

• Participate in group discussions on a variety of topics

• Offer feedback to others in a respectful and responsive manner

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Ask probing questions

• Interview peers

• Share information from personal experience

• Share information from a variety of texts

• State a main idea and support it with facts, details, and examples

• Compare and contrast information

• Present reports of approximately five minutes for teachers and peers

• Summarize main points

• Use notes, outlines, and visual aids appropriate to the presentation

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present original works, such as stories, poems, and plays, to adults and peers, using audible voice and pacing appropriate to content and audience

• Share book reviews

• Summarize the plot and describe the motivation of characters

• Connect a personal response to literature to prior experience or knowledge

• Recognize the importance of cultural and historical characteristics in texts and performances

• Ask questions and respond to questions for clarification

• Use notes or outlines appropriately in presentations

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Ask questions and respond to questions for clarification

• Express an opinion about information, ideas, opinions, themes, and experiences in books, essays, articles, and advertisements

• Analyze an event or issue by using role play as a strategy

• Use information and ideas from personal experiences to form and express opinions and judgments

• Use notes or outlines appropriately in presentations

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, and letters with a teacher or classmate in order to get to know the writer and each other

• Use the informal language of social communication

• Respect the age, gender, position, culture, and interests of the listener

• Use the rules of conversation, such as avoid interrupting and respond respectfully

 

Grade 6 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 6 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 6 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Word Recognition

• Use knowledge of a variety of decoding strategies, such as letter-sound correspondence, syllable patterns, decoding by analogy, word structure, use of syntactic (grammar) cues, and use of semantic (meaning) cues, to read unfamiliar words

• Integrate sources of information to decode unfamiliar words, self-monitor, and self-correct for word-reading accuracy

• Use word recognition skills and strategies quickly, accurately, and automatically when decoding unfamiliar words

• Recognize at sight a large body of high-frequency words and specialized content vocabulary

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Extend knowledge of word meaning through direct and indirect means

• Use word structure knowledge, such as roots (e.g., Greek and Latin), prefixes, and suffixes, to determine word meaning

• Use prior knowledge and experience in order to understand ideas and vocabulary found in a variety of texts

• Acquire new vocabulary by engaging with a variety of texts written by a range of different authors

• Use self-monitoring strategies to identify specific vocabulary difficulties that disrupt comprehension, and employ an efficient course of action, such as using a known word base or a resource such as a glossary to resolve the difficulty

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context, dictionaries, glossaries, and other print resources, including electronic resources

• Use a thesaurus to identify synonyms and antonyms

Comprehension Strategies

• Read grade-level texts from a variety of genres, in varying text formats and by different authors, for a variety of purposes

• Use a variety of strategies (e.g., summarizing, forming questions, visualizing, and making connections) to support understanding of texts read

• Employ self-monitoring strategies and engage in self-correcting behaviors when comprehension has been disrupted

• Ask questions to self-monitor comprehension, to clarify understanding, and to focus reading

• Make connections between texts being read to own lives, the lives of others, other texts read in the past, and the world at large

• State or summarize a main idea and support it or elaborate on it with relevant details

• Present a point of view or interpretation of a text, such as its theme or the author’s intended message, and support it with relevant details from the text

• Read grade-level texts and answer literal, inferential, analytic, and evaluative questions

• Use prior knowledge, along with multiple sources of information, to support comprehension, from forming predictions to making inferences and drawing conclusions

• Note and describe aspects of the writer’s craft, and explain the role that crafting techniques play in helping the reader comprehend the text

• Participate cooperatively and collaboratively in group discussions of texts

• Demonstrate comprehension of grade-level texts through a range of responses, such as writing, drama, and presentations

• Demonstrate personal response to grade-level texts through a range of responses, such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in reading a wide range of texts, topics, genres, and authors

• Read voluntarily for a variety of purposes

• Be familiar with titles and authors of a wide range of literature

• Engage in independent silent reading for extended periods of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources, with some direction, to acquire information

• Use the table of contents and indexes to locate information

• Read to collect and interpret data, facts, and ideas from multiple sources

• Read the steps of a procedure in order to accomplish a task such as completing a science experiment or installing software

• Skim material to gain an overview of content or locate specific information

• Use text features, such as headings, captions, and titles, to understand and interpret informational texts

• Recognize organizational formats to assist in comprehension of informational texts

• Identify missing, conflicting, unclear, and irrelevant information

• Distinguish between fact and opinion

• Identify information that is implied rather than stated

• Compare and contrast information about one topic from multiple sources

• Recognize how new information is related to prior knowledge or experience

• Identify main ideas and supporting details in informational texts to distinguish relevant and irrelevant information

• Apply thinking skills, such as define, classify, and infer, to interpret data, facts, and ideas from informational texts, with assistance

• Use knowledge of structure, content, and vocabulary to understand informational texts, with assistance

• Condense, combine, or categorize new information from one or more sources, with assistance

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information, with assistance

• Make, confirm, or revise predictions, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read, view, and interpret texts from a variety of genres

• Define characteristics of different genres

• Select literary texts on the basis of personal needs and interests and read silently for enjoyment for extended periods

• Read aloud from a variety of genres (e.g., plays and poems)

- use inflection and intonation appropriate to text read and audience

• Recognize that the same story can be told in different genres (e.g., novels, poems, or plays)

• Identify literary elements, (e.g., setting, plot, character, rhythm, and rhyme) of different genres

• Recognize how the author uses literary devices, such as simile, metaphor, and personification, to create meaning

• Recognize how different authors treat similar themes

• Identify the ways in which characters change and develop throughout a story

• Interpret characters, plot, setting, and theme, using evidence from the text, with assistance

• Identify the author’s point of view, such as first-person narrator and omniscient narrator, with assistance

• Determine how the use and meaning of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, alliteration, personification, flashback, and foreshadowing, convey the author’s message or intent, with assistance

• Recognize how the author’s use of language creates images or feelings, with assistance

• Identify poetic elements, such as repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns, in order to interpret poetry, with assistance

• Identify social and cultural context and other characteristics of the time period to enhance understanding and appreciation of text, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate information, ideas, opinions, and themes by identifying

   - a central idea and supporting details

   - precise and vague language

   - statements of fact, opinion, and exaggeration

   - missing or unclear information

• Use established and personal criteria to analyze and evaluate the quality of ideas and information in text

• Identify different perspectives, such as social, cultural, ethnic, and historical, on an issue presented in one or more than one text

• Recognize how one's own point of view contributes to forming an opinion about information and ideas

• Evaluate, with assistance, the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to

   - identify conflicting information

   - consider the background and qualifications of the writer

   - evaluate examples, details, or reasons used to support ideas

   - identify differing points of view in texts and presentations

   - identify cultural and ethnic values and their impact on content, with assistance

   - identify multiple levels of meaning

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences to build a relationship with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud with a partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., jargon, colloquialisms, informal vocabulary, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 6 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 6 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 6 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Correctly spell words within own writing that have been previously studied or that follow previously studied spelling patterns

• Use a variety of spelling resources, such as dictionaries and spell-check tools, to support correct spelling

Handwriting

• Use legible print and/or cursive writing

Composition

• Engage in a variety of writing activities, both student and teacher initiated, to respond to the reading of literary and informational texts

• Engage in a variety of writing activities, both student and teacher initiated, in response to listening to literary and informational texts

• Write on a wide range of topics, both student and teacher selected

• Write for a variety of purposes, selecting a form of writing appropriate to the function of the written communication

• Select an organizational pattern for writing that effectively communicates the topic and purpose of the text to the intended audience

• Write, using a variety of media such as print and electronic

• Use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Use a variety of prewriting strategies to plan and organize writing

• Review writing independently in order to revise for focus, development of ideas, organization, and language use

• Review writing independently to address editing concerns

• Write for a wide variety of audiences

• Adjust style of writing, including voice and language used, according to purpose and audience

• Demonstrate effective use of writer’s-craft techniques, such as literary devices, when writing

• Review writing with teachers and peers

Motivation to Write

• Engage in writing voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences

• Engage in writing voluntarily for a variety of purposes

• Engage in writing voluntarily on a range of topics

• Publish writing in a variety of presentation or display mediums, for a variety of audiences

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use at least three sources of information, with appropriate citations, to develop reports

• Take notes to record and organize relevant data, facts, and ideas

• State a main idea and support it with details and examples

• Compare and contrast ideas and information from two or three sources

• Adopt an organizational format, such as chronological order, that is appropriate for informational writing

• Use paragraphing to organize ideas and information

• Use paraphrasing, with assistance

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

• Include relevant and exclude irrelevant information, with assistance

• Connect, compare, and contrast ideas and information from one or more sources, with assistance

• Support ideas with examples, definitions, analogies, and direct references to the text, with assistance

• Answer questions about informational material and write accurate and complete responses, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts

   - use organizing structures, such as stanzas, chapters, scenes, and verses

   - develop characters, create a setting, and establish a plot

   - use examples of literary devices, such as rhythm, rhyme, simile, and personification

   - establish a consistent point of view (e.g., first or third person)

   - use vocabulary to create a desired effect

• Write interpretive essays to

   - summarize the plot

   - describe the characters and explain how they change

   - describe the setting and recognize its importance to the story

   - draw a conclusion about the work

   - interpret the impact of literary devices, such as simile and personification

   - recognize the impact of rhythm and rhyme in poems

• Respond to literature, connecting the response to personal experience

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

• Express opinions and support them through specific references to the text, with assistance

• Demonstrate understanding of plot and theme, with assistance

• Identify and describe characters and their motivations, with assistance

• Analyze the impact of the setting, with assistance

• Identify how the use of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, personification, and flashback, affects meaning, with assistance

• Draw conclusions and provide reasons for the conclusions, with assistance

• Compare and contrast characters, setting, mood, and voice in more than one literary text or performance, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Use strategies, such as note taking, semantic webbing or mapping, and outlining, to plan and organize writing

• Use supporting evidence from text to evaluate ideas, information, themes, or experiences

• Analyze the impact of an event or issue from personal, peer group, and school community perspectives

• Use information and ideas from other subject areas and personal experiences to form and express opinions and judgments

• Adopt an organizational format (e.g., compare/contrast) appropriate for critical analysis and evaluation

• Use precise vocabulary in writing analysis and evaluation

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

• Present clear analysis, using examples, details, and reasons from text, with assistance

• Select content and choose strategies for written presentation on the basis of audience, purpose, and content, with assistance

• Explain connections between and among texts to extend the meaning of each individual text, with assistance

• Compare and contrast literary elements in more than one genre and/or by more than one author, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get well-card, or thank-you letter with a writing partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer

• Write personal reactions about experiences, events, and observations, using a form of social communication

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social communication

 

Grade 6 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 6 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 6 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen attentively, for an extended period of time, to a variety of texts read aloud

• Listen attentively, for an extended period of time, to oral presentations

• Listen attentively for different purposes, both student determined and teacher determined

• Respond appropriately to what is heard

• Listen respectfully when others speak

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Follow a sequence of instructions consisting of at least three steps when engaging in a task or assignment

• Identify essential details for note taking

• Distinguish between fact and opinion

• Identify information that is implicit rather than stated

• Connect new information to prior knowledge or experience

• Recall significant ideas and details, with assistance

• Make, confirm, or revise predictions, with assistance

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Distinguish different genres, such as story, biography, poem, or play

• Identify a character’s motivation

• Recognize the use of literary devices, such as symbolism, personification, rhythm, and rhyme, in presentation of literary texts, and determine their impact on meaning

• Identify cultural and historical influences in texts and performances

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion or judgment about the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences, with assistance

• Recognize that the criteria used to analyze and evaluate presentations may be influenced by one's point of view and purpose for listening

• Recognize and use the perspectives of others, including teachers and peers, to analyze and evaluate presentations

• Recognize persuasive presentations and identify the techniques (e.g., choice of language and use of sound effects) used to accomplish that purpose

• Recognize persuasive techniques, such as emotional and ethical appeals in presentations, with assistance

• Consider the experience and qualifications of speakers in analyzing and evaluating presentations, with assistance

• Identify missing or unclear information, with assistance

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Recognize friendly communication on the basis of volume, tone, and rate of the speaker’s voice

• Recognize that social communication may include informal language, such as jargon and colloquialisms

• Recognize the meaning of the speaker’s nonverbal cues

 

Grade 6 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 6 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 6 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in response to listening to a variety of texts

• Speak in response to listening to and viewing a variety of performances

• Use appropriate and precise vocabulary to communicate ideas

• Use grammatically correct sentences when speaking

• Include details and examples relevant to the audience when speaking

• Communicate ideas in an organized and coherent manner

• Demonstrate understanding of the need to vary formality of language according to the audience and purpose for speaking

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and gestures appropriate for the topic, audience, and purpose of communication

• Respond respectfully to others, and offer feedback to others in a respectful and responsive manner

• Participate in group discussions on a range of topics and for a variety of purposes

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Synthesize and paraphrase information

• Make connections between sources of information

• Present reports of five to seven minutes for teachers and peers on topics related to any school subject

• Summarize main points as part of the conclusion

• Use notes, outlines, and visual aids appropriate to the presentation

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Use audible voice and pacing appropriate to content and audience when presenting original works, such as stories, poems, and plays, to adults and peers

• Share book reviews

• Summarize the plot, describe the motivation of characters, and explain the importance of setting

• Use notes or outlines appropriately in presentations

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express an opinion or judgment about information, ideas, opinions, themes, and experiences in books, essays, articles, and advertisements

• Use information and ideas from other subject areas and from personal experiences to form and express opinions and judgments

• Articulate a thesis statement and support it with details, examples, and reasons

• Persuade, using appropriate language, tone, volume, and gestures

• Use notes or outlines appropriately in presentations

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Discuss the content of friendly notes, cards, and letters with a teacher or classmate, in order to get to know the writer and each other

• Use the informal language of social communication

• Respect the age, gender, social position, culture, and interests of the listener

• Use the rules of conversation, such as avoid interrupting and respond respectfully

 

Grades 7–8

Core Performance Indicators: common to all four ELA standards

Throughout grades 7 and 8, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

Reading

• Identify a purpose for reading

• Adjust reading rate according to the purpose for reading

• Use word recognition and context clues to read fluently

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, a dictionary, a glossary, and structural analysis (i.e., looking at roots, prefixes, and suffixes of words)

• Distinguish between dictionary meaning and implied meaning of the author’s words

• Identify transitional words or phrases, such as

furthermore or in comparison, that provide clues to organizational formats such as compare/contrast

• Use knowledge of punctuation to assist in comprehension

• Apply corrective strategies, such as discussing with others and monitoring for misunderstandings, to assist in comprehension

• Seek opportunities for improvement in reading comprehension by choosing more challenging writers, topics, and texts

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading accomplishments

Listening

• Adapt listening strategies to different purposes and settings

• Listen respectfully and responsively

• Identify own purpose for listening

• Recognize content-specific vocabulary or terminology

Speaking

• Respond respectfully

• Initiate communication with peers and adults in the school and local community

• Adapt language and presentational features for the audience and purpose

• Use language and grammar appropriate to the purpose for speaking

• Use volume, tone, pitch, and rate appropriate to content and audience

• Use effective nonverbal communication

• Use visual aids to enhance the presentation

• Establish and maintain eye contact with audience

Writing

• Understand the purpose for writing; the purpose may be to explain, describe, narrate, persuade, or express feelings

• Identify the intended audience

• Use tone and language appropriate to audience and purpose

• Use prewriting activities (e.g.., brainstorming, note taking, freewriting, outlining, and paragraphing)

• Use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Write clear, concise, and varied sentences, developing a personal writing style and voice

• Observe rules of punctuation, italicization, capitalization, and spelling as follows:

   - punctuate correctly simple/compound/complex sentences, undivided/divided direct quotations, exact words from sources (quotations), titles of articles/literary works, and business letters

   - use italics and underlining for titles

   - capitalize proper nouns, such as geographical names, academic courses, and organizations

   - spell correctly commonly misspelled words, homonyms, and content-area vocabulary

• Use correct grammatical construction in

   - parts of speech, such as nouns; adjectives and adverbs (comparative/superlative); pronouns (indefinite/nominative/objective); conjunctions (coordinating/subordinating); prepositions and prepositional phrases; interjections; and conjunctions to connect ideas

   - simple/compound/complex sentences; note especially subject-verb agreement, infinitives and participles, clear antecedents for pronouns, placement of modifiers, and use active voice

• Use signal/transitional words or phrases, such as first, next, and in addition, to produce organized, cohesive texts

• Use dictionaries, thesauruses, and style manuals

• Use computer software (e.g., word processing, import graphics) to support the writing process

• Write for an authentic purpose, including publication

 

Grade 7 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 7 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 7 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Word Recognition

• Recognize at sight a large body of words and specialized-content vocabulary

• Use a variety of word recognition strategies, such as letter-sound correspondence, syllable patterns, decoding by analogy, word structure, use of syntactic (grammar) cues, and use of semantic (meaning) cues, to read unfamiliar words quickly and accurately

• Use multiple sources of information, including context, to self-monitor and self-correct for word-reading accuracy

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary

• Develop vocabulary through extensive reading of a variety of texts across subjects and genres

• Use knowledge of word roots (e.g., Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon) and word parts to determine word meaning

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary and idioms by using prior knowledge and context clues

• Use a variety of resources, such as dictionaries, glossaries, and other print and electronic references, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary

Comprehension/Response

• Comprehend and respond to a variety of texts from a range of genres and in a variety of formats for a variety of purposes

• Identify and connect main ideas and themes of texts, using knowledge of text structures, organization, and purposes for reading

• Use a variety of comprehension strategies (e.g., predicting, questioning, summarizing, visualizing, and making connections) to support understanding and response to reading

• Identify and analyze points of view presented in written texts

• Extend understanding of texts by relating content to personal experiences, other texts, and/or world events

• Participate in group discussions to further understanding and response to reading

• Demonstrate comprehension and respond to reading through activities such as writing, drama, and oral presentations

• Read grade-level texts with appropriate expression, phrasing, and rate of reading

Motivation to Read

• Develop personal reading goals and maintain records of reading accomplishments

• Read voluntarily for a variety of purposes

• Be familiar with titles and authors of a wide range of grade- or age-appropriate literature

• Engage in independent silent reading for extended periods of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources to acquire information

• Interpret data, facts, and ideas from informational texts by applying thinking skills, such as define, classify, and infer

• Preview informational texts, with guidance, to assess content and organization and select texts useful for the task

• Use indexes to locate information and glossaries to define terms

• Use knowledge of structure, content, and vocabulary to understand informational text

• Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information

• Identify missing, conflicting, and/or unclear information

• Formulate questions to be answered by reading informational text, with assistance

• Compare and contrast information from a variety of different sources

• Condense, combine, or categorize new information from one or more sources

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information

• Make, confirm, or revise predictions

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Recognize that one text may generate multiple interpretations

• Interpret characters, plot, setting, and theme, using evidence from the text

• Identify the author’s point of view, such as first-person narrator and omniscient narrator

• Recognize recurring themes in a variety of literary works

• Determine how the use and meaning of literary devices (e.g., symbolism, metaphor and simile, alliteration, personification, flashback, and foreshadowing) convey the author’s message or intent

• Recognize how the author’s use of language creates images or feelings

• Identify poetic elements, such as repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns, in order to interpret poetry

• Read silently and aloud from a variety of genres, authors, and themes

• Identify questions of personal importance and interest, and list works of literature that addresses them

• Compare motives of characters, causes of events, and importance of setting in literature to people, events, and places in their own lives

• Identify social and cultural context and other characteristics of the time period to enhance understanding and appreciation of text

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in text to

   - identify conflicting information

   - consider the background and qualifications of the writer

   - evaluate examples, details, or reasons used to support ideas

   - identify propaganda, with assistance

   - identify techniques used to persuade, such as emotional and ethical appeals, with assistance

   - identify differing points of view in texts and presentations

   - identify cultural and ethnic values and their impact on content

   - identify multiple levels of meaning

• Judge a text by using evaluative criteria from a variety of perspectives, such as literary and personal, with assistance

• Recognize the effect of one's own point of view in evaluating ideas, information, opinions, and issues

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud with a partner or in small groups

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize conversational tone in social communication

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 7 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 7 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 7 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Written Language Conventions

• Correctly spell a large body of words

• Use a variety of spelling strategies (e.g., spelling patterns) and spelling resources (e.g., spelling dictionaries and spell-check tools) to support correct spelling

• Use legible print or cursive handwriting, or word processing, as is appropriate to the writing context

Composition

• Use a variety of strategies to plan and organize ideas for writing, such as keeping a list of topic ideas and a writer’s notebook, using graphic organizers, etc.

• Write on a wide range of topics, both student and teacher selected

• Write for a variety of purposes, with attention given to using the form of writing that best supports its purpose

• Write for a range of audiences, adjusting writing style and tone accordingly

• Engage in a variety of writing activities, both student and teacher initiated, to respond to the reading of literary and informational texts

• Engage in a variety of writing activities, both student and teacher initiated, in response to listening to literary and informational texts

• Revise writing to improve organization, clarity, and coherence

• Edit writing to adhere to the conventions of written English

• Work collaboratively with peers to plan, draft, revise, and edit written work

• Write, using a variety of media to communicate ideas and information

Motivation to Write

• Engage in writing voluntarily for a variety of purposes, topics, and audiences

• Publish writing in a variety of presentation or display media

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use several sources of information, in addition to an encyclopedia, in developing research reports

• Identify an appropriate format for sharing information with an intended audience

• Take research notes, using a note-taking process, with assistance

• Use outlines and graphic organizers, such as semantic webs, to plan reports, with assistance

• Include relevant information and exclude irrelevant information

• Use paraphrase and quotation correctly

• Connect, compare, and contrast ideas and information from one or more sources

• Support ideas with examples, definitions, analogies, and direct references to the text

• Use graphics, such as graphs, charts, and diagrams, to enhance the communication of information

• Cite sources in footnotes and bibliography, using correct form, with assistance

• Write accurate and complete responses to questions about informational material

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts to

   - develop a narrative, using an organizational plan such as chronology

   - sequence events (e.g., rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution) to advance a plot, with assistance

   - develop complex characters and create a setting

   - use literary devices

   - maintain a consistent point of view that enhances the message

   - select a genre and use appropriate conventions, such as dialogue, rhythm, and rhyme, with assistance

   - use language that is creative

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately three pages to

   - express opinions and support them through specific references to the text

  - demonstrate understanding of plot and theme

   - identify and describe characters and their motivations

   - analyze the impact of the setting

   - explain how the use of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, personification, and flashback, affects meaning

   - draw conclusions and provide reasons for the conclusions

   - compare and contrast characters, setting, mood, and voice in more than one literary text or performance

   - make connections between literary text and personal experience or knowledge

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes imaginative, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Present clear analysis, using examples, details, and reasons from text

• Present a hypothesis and predict possible outcomes

• Select content and choose strategies for written presentation on the basis of audience, purpose, and content

• Present a subject from more than one perspective by using various resources (e.g., news articles, nonfiction texts, personal experiences, and other school subjects)

• Explain connections between and among texts to extend the meaning of each individual text

• Compare and contrast literary elements in more than one genre and/or by more than one author

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get well-card, or thank-you letter with a writing partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer

• Write personal reactions about experiences, events, and observations, using a form of social communication

• Identify the social communication techniques of published writers

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social communication

• Use the conventions of email

 

Grade 7 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 7 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 7 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen actively and attentively, for an extended period of time, to a variety of texts read aloud

• Listen actively and attentively, for an extended period of time, to oral presentations

• Listen actively and attentively, for an extended period of time, for different purposes and to different speakers

• Respond appropriately to what was heard

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Identify essential information for note taking

• Listen in planning or brainstorming sessions with peers

• Listen to and follow multistep directions that provide information about a task or assignment

• Recall significant ideas and details, and describe the relationships between and among them

• Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant oral information

• Make, confirm, or revise predictions by distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant oral information

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit information

• Recognize that the speaker’s voice quality and delivery impact communication, with assistance

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret and respond to texts on a variety of themes from different genres and authors

• Listen to class lectures, and small group and classroom discussions, to comprehend and interpret literary text

• Recognize different levels of meaning in presentations

• Identify how the author's choice of words/characterization and use of other literary devices affect the listener's interpretation of the oral text, with assistance

• Identify how the poet’s use of repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns affects the listener’s interpretation of poetry, with assistance

• Recognize that the meaning of the spoken word can vary on the basis of tone, volume, pitch, and rate

• Recognize how the posture, facial expression, and gestures of the speaker or actor are used to evoke a response

• Identify questions of personal importance and interest and seek to address them by listening to and interpreting films, plays, and dramatic readings

• Recognize social, historical, and cultural features in presentations of literary texts, with assistance

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion or judgment about the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, opinions, themes, and experiences

• Recognize multiple levels of meaning

• Use personal experiences and knowledge, and the opinions of speakers in school and community settings, to make judgments from a variety of perspectives

• Recognize persuasive techniques, such as emotional and ethical appeals, in presentations

• Consider the experience and qualifications of speakers when analyzing and evaluating presentations, with assistance

• Identify missing or unclear information

• Evaluate the organization of presentations

• Evaluate the quality of the speaker’s presentation style by using criteria such as voice quality and enunciation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends or acquaintances

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for more than one level of meaning

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 7 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 7 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 7 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak in grammatically correct sentences, communicating ideas in an organized and coherent manner

• Use appropriate and precise vocabulary to convey ideas effectively

• Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker’s claims and conclusions

• Use a variety of speaking techniques (e.g., adjusting tone, volume, and tempo; enunciating; and making eye contact) to make effective presentations

• Participate actively and productively in group discussions

• Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background and interests of the audience, with logic and coherence, when making presentations

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations on informational topics

• Contribute to group discussions by offering comments to clarify ideas and information

• Present information to address audience needs

• Present examples, definitions, and direct references to the text in support of ideas

• Connect, compare, and contrast ideas and information

• Use the conventions of the presentational format for panel discussions and mock trials

• Ask questions to clarify information

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present interpretations and support them through specific references to the text

• Explain social, historical, and cultural features of literary text

• Present original literary texts, using language and text structures that are inventive; for example,

   - use conventions of the literary genre, such as story, poem, and play

   - use an introduction that catches and excites the interest of the listener

• Ask and respond to questions to clarify an interpretation or response to literary texts and performances

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions or judgments about information, ideas, opinions, themes, and experiences

• Use an organizational format (e.g., question/answer, compare/contrast, and cause/effect) so that ideas and information are clear

• State a hypothesis and predict possible outcomes

• Present content, using strategies designed for the audience and purpose

• Present a subject from one or more perspectives

• Credit sources of information and opinions accurately in presentations and handouts, with assistance

• Ask and respond to questions to clarify an opinion or judgment

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Provide feedback by asking questions

• Use courtesy; for example, avoid sarcasm, ridicule, dominating the conversation, and interrupting

• Use culture-specific language, jargon, and colloquialisms appropriate to the purpose and the listener

• Adopt conventions of email to establish friendly tone in electronic-based social communication

 

Grade 8 Reading

Literacy Competencies

The reading competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 8 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 8 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

Word Recognition

• Recognize at sight a large body of high-frequency words and specialized content vocabulary

• Use a variety of word recognition strategies, such as letter-sound correspondence, syllable patterns, decoding by analogy, word structure, use of syntactic (grammar) cues, and use of semantic (meaning) cues, to read unfamiliar words quickly and accurately

• Use varied sources of information, including context, to monitor and self-correct for word-reading accuracy

Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Development

• Acquire grade-appropriate vocabulary by reading a variety of texts across subject areas

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, terms, and idioms by using context, dictionaries, glossaries, and other print and electronic resources

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, terms, and idioms by using word structure knowledge, such as roots (e.g., Greek and Latin), prefixes, and suffixes, to determine word meaning

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, terms, and idioms by using prior knowledge and context clues

• Recognize grade-appropriate synonyms and antonyms and use a thesaurus to identify additional examples

• Recognize multiple meanings of words and connections among meanings of words

Fluency

• Read grade-appropriate texts with appropriate expression, phrasing, and pacing

Comprehension/Response

• Respond to and comprehend various genres for student-selected and teacher-selected purposes

• Combine multiple strategies (e.g., predict/confirm, question, visualize, summarize, monitor, self-correct) to enhance comprehension and response

• Use text structure and literary devices to aid comprehension and response

• Work collaboratively with peers to comprehend and respond to texts

• Analyze, contrast, support, and critique points of view in a wide range of genres

• Find, evaluate, and combine information from print and electronic sources for student-selected and teacher-selected inquiries

• Demonstrate comprehension and response through a range of activities, such as writing, drama, oral presentation, and mixed media performance

Motivation to Read

• Show interest in reading a wide range of texts, topics, genres, and authors

• Read voluntarily for a variety of personal and academic purposes

• Be familiar with titles and authors of a wide range of grade-appropriate literature

• Engage in independent silent reading for extended periods of time

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources independently to acquire information

• Apply thinking skills, such as define, classify, and infer, to interpret data, facts, and ideas from informational texts

• Read and follow written multistep directions or procedures to accomplish a task or complete an assignment

• Preview informational texts to assess content and organization and select texts useful for the task

• Use indexes to locate information and glossaries to define terms

• Use knowledge of structure, content, and vocabulary to understand informational text

• Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information

• Identify missing, conflicting, or unclear information

• Formulate questions to be answered by reading informational text

• Compare and contrast information from a variety of different sources

• Condense, combine, or categorize new information from one or more sources

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information

• Make, confirm, or revise predictions

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read silently and aloud from a variety of genres, authors, and themes

• Interpret characters, plot, setting, theme, and dialogue, using evidence from the text

• Identify the author’s point of view, such as first-person narrator and omniscient narrator

• Determine how the use and meaning of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, illustration, personification, flashback, and foreshadowing, convey the author’s message or intent

• Recognize how the author’s use of language creates images or feelings

• Identify poetic elements, such as repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns, in order to interpret poetry

• Compare motives of characters, causes of events, and importance of setting in literature to people, events, and places in own lives

• Identify social and cultural contexts and other characteristics of the time period in order to enhance understanding and appreciation of text

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Evaluate the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, themes, opinions, and experiences in texts: for example,

   - identify conflicting information

   - consider the background and qualifications of the writer

   - question the writer’s assumptions, beliefs, intentions, and biases

   - evaluate examples, details, or reasons used to support ideas

   - identify fallacies of logic that lead to unsupported conclusions

   - discriminate between apparent messages and hidden agendas

   - identify propaganda and evaluate its effectiveness

   - identify techniques the author uses to persuade (e.g., emotional and ethical appeals)

   - identify differing points of view in texts and presentations

   - identify cultural and ethnic values and their impact on content

   - identify multiple levels of meaning

• Judge a text by using evaluative criteria from a variety of perspectives, such as literary, political, and personal

• Suspend judgment until all information has been presented

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with peers or adults; for example, read together silently or aloud with a partner or in small groups

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 8 Writing

Literacy Competencies

The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 8 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 8 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

Spelling

• Correctly spell most words in one’s writing

• Use a variety of spelling resources, such as spelling dictionaries and spell-check tools, to spell words correctly

Text Production

• Use legible print or cursive writing, or type

Composition

• Compose, mechanically grade-appropriate texts for a variety of student-selected and teacher-selected purposes

• Write with voice to address varied purposes, topics, and audiences across the curriculum

• Organize writing effectively to communicate ideas to an intended audience

• Compose arguments to support points of view with relevant details from single and multiple texts

• Work collaboratively with peers to plan, draft, revise, and edit written work

• Produce written and multimedia reports of inquiry, using multiple sources

Motivation to Write

• Engage in writing voluntarily for a variety of purposes, topics, and audiences

• Publish writing in a variety of presentation or display media

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use several sources of information, in addition to an encyclopedia, to develop research reports

• Identify appropriate format for sharing information with intended audience and comply with the accepted features of that format

• Take research notes, using a note-taking process

• Use outlines and graphic organizers, such as semantic webs, to plan reports

• Include relevant and exclude irrelevant information

• Use paraphrase and quotation correctly

• Connect, compare, and contrast ideas and information from one or more sources

• Support ideas with examples, definitions, analogies, and direct references to the text

• Cite sources in notes and bibliography, using correct form

• Write accurate and complete responses to questions about informational material

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts to

   - develop a narrative, using an organizational plan such as chronology or flashback

   - sequence events to advance a plot; use action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution

   - maintain a consistent point of view that enhances the message and/or establishes the mood

   - select a genre and use appropriate conventions, such as dialogue, rhythm, and rhyme

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately three pages to

   - express opinions and support them through specific references to the text

   - demonstrate an understanding of plot and theme

   - identify and describe characters and their motivations

   - analyze the importance of setting

   - identify and interpret how the use of literary devices, such as symbolism, metaphor and simile, alliteration, personification, flashback, and foreshadowing, affects meaning

   - draw conclusions and provide reasons for the conclusions

   - compare and contrast characters, setting, mood, and voice in more than one literary text or performance

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Present clear analyses, using examples, details, and reasons from text

• Present a hypothesis and predict possible outcomes from one or more perspectives

• Select content and choose strategies for written presentation on the basis of audience, purpose, and content

• Explain connections between and among texts to extend the meaning of each individual text

• Compare and contrast the use of literary elements in more than one genre, by more than one author

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get-well card, or thank-you letter with a writing partner or in small groups

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Develop a personal voice that enables the reader to get to know the writer

• Write personal reactions to experiences, events, and observations, using a form of social communication

• Identify and model the social communication techniques of published writers

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social communication

• Use the conventions of email

 

Grade 8 Listening

Literacy Competencies

The listening competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 8 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 8 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

Listening

• Listen with comprehension, for an extended period of time, to texts read aloud

• Listen with comprehension, for an extended period of time, to oral presentations

• Listen with comprehension for student-determined and teacher-determined purposes

• Respond appropriately to what is heard

• Listen with comprehension and respect when others speak

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Recall significant ideas and details and the relationships between and among them

• Identify missing, conflicting, or unclear information

• Draw conclusions and make inferences on the basis of explicit and implied information

• Recognize that the speaker’s voice and delivery impact communication

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Listen to class lectures, and small group and classroom discussions, to comprehend, interpret, and critique literary text

• Identify how the author’s choice of words, use of characterization, and use of other literary devices affect the listener’s interpretation of the oral text

• Identify how the poet’s use of repetition, rhythm, and rhyming patterns affects the listener’s interpretation of poetry

• Recognize social, historical, and cultural features in presentation of literary texts

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form an opinion or judgment about the validity and accuracy of information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences

• Recognize persuasive techniques, such as emotional and ethical appeals, in presentations

• Consider the experience, qualifications, and possible biases of speakers in analyzing and evaluating presentations

• Identify conflicting, missing, or unclear information

• Suspend judgment until all information has been presented

• Evaluate the quality of the speaker’s presentation style by using criteria such as voice quality, enunciation, and delivery

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends or acquaintances

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for more than one level of meaning, articulated and unspoken

• Encourage the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 8 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

The speaking competencies common to all four ELA standards that students demonstrate during grade 8 are

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 8 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

Speaking

• Speak to share responses to a variety of texts and performances

• Use precise vocabulary to communicate ideas

• Speak, using grammatical structures suited to particular audiences

• Speak to include details and examples relevant to the audience and purpose

• Communicate spoken ideas in an organized and coherent manner

• Speak with expression, volume, pace, and gestures appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose of communication

• Respond respectfully to others

• Participate in group discussions on a range of topics and for a variety of purposes

• Offer verbal feedback to others in a respectful and responsive manner

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations on informational topics

• Contribute to group discussions by offering comments to clarify and interpret ideas and information

• Present information to address audience needs and to anticipate questions

• Present examples, definitions, analogies, and direct references to the text in support of ideas

• Connect, compare, and contrast ideas and information

• Use the conventions of the presentational format for panel discussions, debates, and mock trials

• Ask and respond to questions to clarify information

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Express interpretations and support them through specific references to the text

• Present original, literary texts, using language and text structures that are inventive; for example,

- use rhyme, rhythm, and repetition to create an emotional or aesthetic effect

• Ask and respond to questions to clarify an interpretation or response to literary texts and performances

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions or judgments about information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences

• State a hypothesis and predict possible outcomes from one or more perspectives

• Present content, using strategies designed for the audience, purpose, and context

• Credit sources of information and opinions accurately in presentations and handouts

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Provide feedback by asking questions designed to encourage further conversation

• Use courtesy; for example, avoid sarcasm, ridicule, dominating the conversation, and interrupting

• Use culture-specific language, jargon, colloquialisms, and gestures appropriate to the purpose, occasion, and listener

• Respond to the listener’s interests, needs, and reactions to social conversation

• Adopt conventions of email to establish friendly tone in electronic-based social communication

 

Grades 9–12

Core Performance Indicators: common to all four ELA standards

Throughout grades 9, 10, 11, and 12, students demonstrate the following core performance indicators in the key ideas of reading, writing, listening, and

speaking.

Reading

• Identify the purpose for reading

• Adjust the reading rate according to the purpose for reading

• Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using classroom and other resources

• Distinguish between dictionary meaning and implied meaning of the writer’s words

• Follow the logic of compound/complex sentence structure

• Use knowledge of punctuation to assist in comprehension

• Identify transitional words or phrases that make text cohesive (e.g., finally, in addition, and in contrast)

• Recognize the organizational format, such as hierarchical, chronological, and cause/effect

• Use strategies such as discussing with others, reading guides and summaries, and reading aloud to assist in comprehension

• Identify opportunities for improvement of reading comprehension skills; for example, exposure to seek a wider range of writers, topics, and styles

• Maintain a personal reading list to reflect reading accomplishments

Listening

• Listen respectfully and responsively

• Recognize the use and impact of effective language

• Demonstrate appropriate body language as a listener

• Identify own purpose for listening

• Recognize content-specific vocabulary, terminology, or jargon unique to particular groups of people

Speaking

• Respond respectfully

• Initiate communication with peers and adults in the school and local community

• Use a presentational format appropriate for the audience and purpose

• Use the conventions of standard spoken English appropriate to the message and audience

• Apply delivery techniques such as voice projection and demonstrate physical poise

• Use nonverbal communication techniques to help disclose message

• Use visual aids and props effectively

• Respond to the audience’s reaction and adapt presentation

• Establish and maintain eye contact with audience

Writing

• Understand the purpose for writing; the purpose may be to explain, describe, narrate, persuade, or express feelings

• Identify the intended audience

• Use tone and language appropriate to the audience and purpose

• Use prewriting activities (e.g., brainstorming, freewriting, note taking, outlining, and paragraphing)

• Use the writing process (e.g., prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, and editing)

• Write clear, concise sentences

• Observe the rules of punctuation, capitalization, and spelling

   - punctuation of simple and compound sentences, dialogue, titles of articles

   - capitalization of words such as proper adjectives, titles of persons, and words in quotes

   - spelling of commonly misspelled words, homonyms, content-area vocabulary

• Use correct grammatical construction

   - parts of speech, such as nouns; adjectives and adverbs (comparative/superlative); pronouns (indefinite/ nominative/objective); conjunctions (coordinating/ subordinating); prepositions and prepositional phrases; interjections; and conjunctions to connect ideas

   - complete simple, compound, and complex sentences of varied structure containing dependent clauses and using correct subject-verb agreement, correct verb tense, and pronouns with clear antecedents

• Use dictionaries, thesauruses, and style manuals

• Use an organizational format that provides direction, coherence, and/or unity

• Use computer technology to create, manipulate, and edit text

 

Grade 9 Reading

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 9 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources for information and research

   - define a purpose for reading by asking questions about what they need to know for their research

• Use specialized reference sources, such as glossaries and directories

• Read and follow written, complex directions and procedures to solve problems and accomplish tasks

   - demonstrate task awareness by employing flexible strategies

• Skim texts to gain an overall impression and scan texts for particular information

   - focus on key words and phrases to generate research questions

• Recognize the defining features and structures of informational texts

• Interpret and evaluate data, facts, and ideas in informational texts, such as national newspapers, online and electronic databases, and websites

• Identify and evaluate the validity of informational sources, with assistance

• Distinguish verifiable statement from hypothesis, and assumption and facts from opinion, with assistance

• Analyze information from different sources by making connections and showing relationships to other texts, such as biographies and autobiographies

   - employ a range of post-reading practices

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read, view, and interpret texts and performances in every medium from a wide variety of authors, subjects, and genres (e.g., short stories, novels, plays, film and video productions, poems, and essays)

   - build background by activating prior knowledge through questioning what they already know about the form in which the story is presented and the period in which it was written

• Read, view, and respond independently to literary works that represent a range of social, historical, and cultural perspectives

• Recognize a range of literary elements and techniques, such as figurative language, allegory, irony, symbolism, and stream of consciousness, and use these elements to interpret the work

   - check for understanding of texts by engaging in oral reading activities, such as read-arounds, to identify and provide effective examples of literary elements

• Distinguish between different forms of poetry, such as sonnet, lyric, elegy, narrative, epic, and ode

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

• Read literary texts aloud to convey an interpretation of the work

   - engage in a variety of shared reading experiences, such as choral reading and reader’s theatre

• Read works with a common theme and compare the treatment of that theme by different authors

• Interpret multiple levels of meaning in text

• Recognize relevance of literature to personal events and situations

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form opinions and make judgments about the accuracy of information and personal texts

• Generate a list of significant questions to assist with analysis of text

• Analyze and evaluate nonfiction texts

   - determine the significance and reliability of information

   - focus on key words/phrases that signal that the text is heading in a particular direction

• Analyze and evaluate poetry to recognize the use and effect of

   - rhythm, rhyme, and sound pattern

   - repetition

   - differences between language of the poem and everyday language of readers

• Engage in oral reading activities, such as

read-arounds, to identify and provide effective examples of poetic elements

• Analyze and evaluate fiction, including

   - the development of a central idea or theme

   - the development of characters and their actions

   - the elements of the plot, such as conflict, climax, and resolution

   - the significance of the title

• Form opinions and make judgments about literary works, by analyzing and evaluating texts from a critical perspective

• Select, reject, and reconcile ideas and information in light of prior knowledge and experiences

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with a peer or adult; for example, read together silently or aloud or discuss reactions to texts

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 9 Writing

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 9 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use both primary and secondary sources of information for research

• Select and limit topics for informational writing, with assistance

• Analyze data and facts to communicate information

• Take notes from written and oral texts, such as lectures and interviews

• Use a range of organizational strategies to present information

• Apply new information in different contexts and situations

• Cite primary and secondary sources of information in bibliography and citations, using an approved style sheet

• Define the meaning of and understand the consequences of plagiarism

• Use paraphrase and quotation in order to communicate information most effectively

• Use charts, graphs, or diagrams to illustrate informational text

• Use the language of research, such as documentation, source, note, paraphrase, citation, and bibliography

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts

   - use elements of literary text, such as plot, character, setting, dialogue, conflict, and suspense, to engage the reader

   - maintain consistent point of view, including first-person, third-person, or omniscient narrator

   - create a personal voice

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately three pages to

   - express judgments and support them through references to the text, using direct quotations and paraphrase

   - explain how the author’s use of literary devices affects meaning

   - engage in a variety of prewriting experiences, such as using a variety of visual representations to express interpretations, feelings, and new insights

   - compare and contrast the treatment of literary elements in different genres and by more than one author

• Use resources such as personal experience, knowledge from other content areas, and independent reading to create literary, interpretive, and responsive texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• State an opinion or present a judgment by developing a thesis and providing supporting evidence, arguments, and details

• Analyze a variety of texts using resources such as knowledge from school subjects, readings, and personal experiences

• Use strategies designed to influence or persuade in advertisements

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get-well card, or thank-you letter with writing partner(s)

• Respect the age, gender, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Write and share personal reactions to experiences, events, and observations, using a form of social communication

• Identify and model the social communication techniques of published authors

• Distinguish between the conventions of academic writing and the conventions of email

• Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social interaction

 

Grade 9 Listening

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 9 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Interpret information from media presentations, such as news broadcasts and taped interviews

• Listen to and follow complex directions or instructions

• Identify the speaker’s purpose and motive for communicating information

• Recognize appropriate voice and tone

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret and respond to texts and performances from a variety of genres, authors, and subjects

• Respond to authors’ reading and discussing their works

• Recognize features of literary genres in interpreting presentations of literary text

• Recognize historical and contemporary social and cultural conditions in presentation of literary texts

• Connect literary texts to prior knowledge, personal experience, and contemporary situations

• Identify multiple levels of meaning in presentation of literary texts

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Recognize and acknowledge various perspectives on issues of local and national concern

• Determine points of view

• Use prior knowledge, as well as the perspectives of other individuals, groups, and recognized experts, to analyze and evaluate presentations

• Evaluate the content and organization of the presentations, applying criteria such as point of view and appropriateness and completeness of reasons, examples, and details

• Evaluate the possible bias of the speaker, in order to judge the validity of the content

• Recognize the use of protocols and traditional practices in public speaking

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends, acquaintances, or strangers

• Respect age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for multiple levels of meaning, articulated and unspoken

• Encourage the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 9 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 9 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations on a range of informational topics

• Use notes or speaking points to assist in delivery

• Express a point of view, providing supporting facts

• Give directions and explain a process

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Express opinions and support them through references to the text

- engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peer-led discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative group discussions, to construct meaning

• Describe the features of the genre to interpret and respond to literary text

• Use literary devices, such as volume, rate, rhyme, rhythm, and repetition, to create an emotional or aesthetic response

• Use media to support presentation of original and interpretive texts

• Ask and respond to questions and follow-up questions to clarify interpretation

- engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peer-led discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative group discussions, to make applications of the ideas in the text to other situations, extending the ideas to broaden perspectives

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions or make judgments about ideas, information, experiences, and issues in literary and historical articles

• Articulate personal opinions to clarify stated positions

• Present content that is clearly organized and based on knowledge of audience needs and interests

• Present arguments from different perspectives

• Speak extemporaneously to clarify or elaborate

• Respond to constructive criticism

• Use visuals and technology to enhance presentation

• Ask and respond to questions to seek clarity

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Speaking informally with familiar and unfamiliar people, individually and in group settings

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Provide feedback by asking questions designed to encourage further conversation

• Respond to the listener's interests, needs, and reactions to social conversations

• Use courtesy; for example, avoid sarcasm, ridicule, dominating the conversation, and interrupting

• Select language and behavior appropriate to the purpose, occasion, and listener

• Adopt the conventions of email to establish friendly tone in electronic-based social communication

• Respond respectfully

 

Grade 10 Reading

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 10 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school and public library resources for information and research

   - set purpose for reading by asking questions about what they need to know for their research

• Use specialized reference sources, such as glossaries, directories, and abstracts

• Read and follow written directions and procedures to solve problems and accomplish tasks

   - use workplace documents

• Skim texts to gain an overall impression and scan texts for particular information

   - focus on key words/phrases to generate questions

• Identify and evaluate the reliability and validity of informational sources

• Recognize unstated assumptions

• Distinguish verifiable statement from hypothesis

• Analyze information from different sources, making connections and showing relationships to other texts, ideas, and subjects

   - employ a range of post-reading practices to think about new learning and plan further learning

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read, view, and interpret texts and performances in every medium (e.g., short stories, novels, plays, film and video productions, poems, and essays) from a wide variety of authors, subjects, and genres

   - build background by activating prior knowledge through questioning what they already know about the form in which the story is presented and the period in which it was written

• Read, view, and respond independently to literary works that represent a range of social, historical, and cultural perspectives

• Read literary criticism to increase comprehension and appreciation of literary texts, with assistance

• Recognize how authors use tone to express their ideas or an attitude toward the subject matter or the audience

• Distinguish between different forms of poetry, such as sonnet, lyric, elegy, narrative, epic, and ode, and recognize how the author uses poetic form to convey message or intent

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

• Read literary texts aloud to convey an interpretation of the work

• Interpret literary texts on the basis of an understanding of the genre and the literary period

• Interpret multiple levels of meaning and subtleties in text

• Recognize relevance of literature to contemporary and/or personal events and situations

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form opinions and make judgments about the validity of persuasive texts

• Generate a list of significant questions to assist with analysis of text

• Analyze and evaluate nonfiction texts, including

   - determine the writer’s perspectives, purposes, and intended audiences

   - determine the reliability and significance of information

   - recognize the format and its significance to content

• Analyze and evaluate poetry in order to recognize the use and effect of

   - sensory imagery

   - figurative language

   - verse form

• Evaluate poetry to recognize the use and effect of verse form

• Analyze and evaluate fiction, including

   - the background in which the text is written

   - the effect created by the author’s tone or mood

• Form opinions and make judgments about literary works, by analyzing and evaluating texts from more than one critical perspective, such as cultural and historical

• Select, reject, and reconcile ideas and information in light of beliefs

• Make judgments about the quality of literary texts and performances by applying personal and academic criteria, such as that found in literary criticism

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with a peer or adult; for example, read together silently or aloud, or discuss reactions to texts

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 10 Writing

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 10 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use both primary and secondary sources of information for research

• Select and limit topics for informational writing

• Analyze data, facts, and ideas to communicate information

• Take notes and organize information from written and oral texts, such as lectures and interviews

• Use a range of organizational strategies (e.g., clustering, webbing, and mapping) to present information

• Define the meaning of and understand the consequences of plagiarism; investigate school policy

• Use charts, graphs, and diagrams to support and illustrate informational texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts

   - use literary devices, such as figurative language, allegory, irony, symbolism, and stream of consciousness

   - create multiple levels of meaning, with assistance

   - use language and sentence structure creatively to elicit the reader’s emotional response

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately three pages to

   - express judgments and support them through references to the text, using direct quotations and paraphrase

   - explain how the author’s use of literary devices affects meaning

   - examine development and impact of literary elements, such as character (protagonist and antagonist), action (conflict, intrigue, suspense, and climax), and setting (locale and time period), in literary texts and performances

   - compare and contrast the treatment of literary elements in different genres and by more than one author

   - engage in a variety of prewriting experiences, such as using a variety of visual representations to express interpretations, feelings, and new insights

• Use resources such as personal experience, knowledge from other content areas, and independent reading to create literary, interpretive, and responsive texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Articulate one or more perspectives, such as one's own and/or those of a special interest group, to summarize arguments on different sides of issues

• Develop critiques from more than one perspective, such as historical and cultural

• Analyze texts, using resources such as recognized experts, knowledge from school subjects and reading, and personal experience

• Use strategies designed to influence or persuade in writing editorials

• Use telecommunication to participate in Listserv discussion groups

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note,

get well-card, or thank-you letter with writing partner(s)

• Respect age, gender, and cultural traditions of the recipient

• Identify and model the social communication techniques of published writers

• Distinguish between the conventions of academic writing and the conventions of email and instant messaging

 

Grade 10 Listening

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 10 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Interpret information from media presentations, such as documentary films, news broadcasts, and taped interviews

• Anticipate the speaker’s points and assess their validity, with assistance

• Determine the need for more information for clarification

• Synthesize information from different sources by combining or categorizing data and facts

• Recognize appropriate voice, tone, and diction

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret and respond to texts from a variety of genres, authors, and subjects

• Respond to authors’ reading and discussing their works

• Recognize features of literary genres in interpreting and responding to presentations of literary texts

• Recognize and respond to historical and contemporary social and cultural conditions in presentation of literary texts

• Identify how format and language are used in presentations to communicate the author’s message

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Recognize and acknowledge various perspectives on issues of world concern

• Determine points of view and clarify positions

• Evaluate content and organization of the presentations, applying criteria such as relevance of statements in relation to the topic

• Evaluate the expertise and possible bias of the speaker, in order to judge the validity of the content

• Recognize the use of protocols and traditional practices in debating and public speaking

• Analyze and evaluate information, ideas, options, issues, themes, and experiences from a range of academic and nonacademic presentations, such as speeches, interviews, and editorials

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends, acquaintances, or strangers

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for multiple levels of meaning, articulated and unspoken

• Encourage the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 10 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 10 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations to a variety of audiences on a range of informational topics

• Express a point of view, providing supporting facts and details

• Anticipate and acknowledge the listener’s points of view

• Ask and respond to probing questions to acquire information

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Describe the features of the genre and the period to interpret and respond to texts

• Use devices such as voice, tone, volume, pitch, rate, rhyme, rhythm, and repetition to create an emotional or aesthetic response

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions or make judgments about ideas, information, experiences, and issues in literary, scientific, and historical articles and in advertisements

• Articulate personal opinions to clarify stated positions and persuade or influence groups

• Present reasons, examples, and details from sources cited to defend opinions and judgments

• Modify content on the basis of audience response during presentation

• Respond to constructive criticism

• Use visuals and technology to enhance presentation

• Ask and respond to questions to seek clarity or to suggest different perspectives

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Speak informally with familiar and unfamiliar people, individually and in group settings

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Use social communication in workplace settings to foster trust and build goodwill

• Respond respectfully

 

Grade 11 Reading

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 11 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school, public, and academic library resources for information and research

• Read and follow written directions and procedures to solve problems and accomplish tasks

   - use workplace documents and technical manuals

• Identify and evaluate the reliability and validity of informational sources

• Check the consistency of hypothesis with given information and assumption

• Analyze and synthesize information from different sources, making connections and showing relationships to other texts, ideas, and subjects and to the world at large

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Read, view, and interpret texts and performances in every medium (e.g., short stories, novels, plays, film and video productions, poems, and essays) from a wide variety of authors, subjects, and genres

   - build background by activating prior knowledge through questioning what they already know about the form in which the story is presented and the period in which it was written

• Read, view, and respond independently to literary works that represent a range of social, historical, and cultural perspectives

   - monitor their own comprehension by questioning, reviewing, revising, and rereading to enhance overall comprehension

• Read literary criticism to increase comprehension and appreciation of literary texts

   - use a variety of written responses, such as double-entry journals and reading logs, to integrate new concepts with existing knowledge

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

• Read literary texts aloud to convey an interpretation of the work

• Interpret multiple levels of meaning and subtleties in text

   - engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peer-led discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative group discussions, to construct meaning

• Recognize and analyze the relevance of literature to contemporary and/or personal events and situations

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Form opinions and make judgments about the validity of interpretive texts

• Analyze and evaluate nonfiction

   - identify text structure, using supports such as graphic organizers

   - preview a text (e.g., in order to build a schema), noticing structural markers, such as headings and subheadings

   - identify the particular kinds of language used in particular texts

• Analyze and evaluate fiction, including the effect of diction and figurative language

   - use a variety of written responses, such as double-entry journals and reading logs, to identify literary elements and evaluate their effectiveness

• Form opinions and make judgments about literary works, by analyzing and evaluating texts from more than one critical perspective, such as psychological

• Select, reject, and reconcile ideas and information in light of biases

• Make judgments about the quality of literary texts and performances by applying personal and academic criteria, such as that found in literary criticism and in political, historical, and scientific analysis

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with a peer or adult; for example, read together silently or aloud and discuss reactions to texts

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 11 Writing

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 11 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use both primary and secondary sources of information for research

• Analyze and integrate data, facts, and ideas to communicate information

• Define the meaning of and understand the consequences of plagiarism; investigate electronic safeguards

• Use a range of organizational strategies, such as clustering, webbing, and mapping, to present information

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write original literary texts

   - create social, historical, and/or cultural context

   - create multiple levels of meaning

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately three to five pages to

   - express judgments and support them through references to the text, using direct quotations and paraphrase

   - explain how the author’s use of literary devices affects meaning

   - examine development and impact of literary elements, such as character (protagonist and antagonist), action (conflict, intrigue, suspense, and climax), and setting (locale and time period), in literary texts and performances

   - compare and contrast the treatment of literary elements in different genres and by more than one author

   - use literary criticism to expand personal analysis of the literary text

   - engage in a variety of prewriting experiences, such as using a variety of visual representations, to express interpretations, feelings, and new insights

• Use resources, such as personal experience, knowledge from other content areas, and independent reading, to create literary, interpretive, and responsive texts

• Maintain a portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Develop critiques from more than one perspective, such as historical, cultural, and social

• Analyze a wide range of texts using resources such as recognized experts, knowledge from school subjects and reading, and personal experience

• Use strategies designed to influence or persuade in writing speeches, editorials, and advertisements

• Use telecommunication to participate in Listserv discussion groups

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get-well card, or thank-you letter with writing partner(s)

• Respect age, gender, and cultural traditions of the recipient

 

Grade 11 Listening

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 11 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Interpret and analyze information from media presentations, such as documentary films, news broadcasts, and taped interviews

• Anticipate the speaker’s points and assess their validity

• Synthesize information from different sources by condensing, combining, or categorizing data, facts, and ideas

• Recognize appropriate voice, tone, diction, and syntax

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret and respond to texts from a variety of genres, authors, and subjects

• Respond to authors’ reading and discussing their works

• Recognize and respond to historical and contemporary social, political, and cultural conditions in presentation of literary text

• Identify how format and language are used in presentations to communicate the author’s message and evoke a response

• Recognize how presentation style affects the emotional response of listeners

• Listen to comprehend, interpret, and respond to texts and performances, such as reviews and critiques of literary texts

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Determine points of view, clarify positions, make judgments, and form opinions

• Use the perspectives of other individuals, groups, recognized experts, and prior knowledge to analyze and evaluate presentations

• Evaluate content and organization of the presentations, applying criteria such as the validity of the speaker’s conclusion

• Recognize the use of protocols and traditional practices in interviewing and other forms of speaking

• Evaluate the impact of the medium on the message

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends or acquaintances

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for multiple levels of meaning, articulated and unspoken

• Encourage the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 11 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 11 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations to a variety of audiences on a range of informational topics

• Use figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, to make new ideas and complex information clearer to listeners

• Anticipate and respond to the listener’s points of view

• Give directions and explain complex processes

• Ask and respond to probing and challenging questions to acquire information

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Use devices such as voice, tone, volume, pitch, rate, body language, rhyme, rhythm, and repetition to create an emotional or aesthetic response

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions or make judgments about ideas, information, experiences, and issues in literary, scientific, and historic articles, in public documents, and in advertisements

• Articulate personal opinions to clarify stated positions, persuade or influence groups, or state preferences about topics

• Present reasons, examples, and details from sources such as reviews of books, plays, and interviews to defend opinions and judgments

• Modify content and presentation strategies on the basis of audience response during presentation

• Respond to constructive criticism

• Use visuals and technology to enhance presentation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Speak informally with familiar and unfamiliar people, individually and in group settings

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Use social communication in workplace settings to foster trust and build goodwill

• Respond respectfully

 

Grade 12 Reading

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 12 students demonstrate as they learn to read include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Locate and use school, public, academic, and special library resources for information and research

   - use primary and secondary sources, such as dictionaries and abstracts

   - set purpose for reading by asking questions about what they need to know for their research

• Check consistency of hypothesis with given information and assumption

• Analyze and synthesize information from different sources by making connections and showing relationships to other texts, ideas, subjects, and the world at large

   - employ a range of post-reading practices to think about new learning and to plan future learning

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Recognize and analyze the relevance of literature to contemporary and/or personal events and situations from short stories, novels, plays, film and video productions, poems, and essays

   - read and discuss literary criticism

   - engage in a variety of collaborative conversations, such as peer-led discussions, paired reading and responding, and cooperative group discussions, to make applications of the ideas in the text to other situations, extending the ideas to broaden perspectives

• Read, view, and respond independently to literary works that represent a range of social, historical, and cultural perspectives

• Compare a film, video, or stage version of a literary work with the written version

• Read literary texts aloud to convey an interpretation of the work

• Read and interpret literary texts from a range of authors, genres, and subjects, including literary criticism

• Interpret multiple levels of meaning and subtleties in text

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Analyze and evaluate nonfiction texts, including professional journals, technical manuals, and position papers, to determine the writer’s perspectives, purposes, and intended audience

   - identify text structure, using supports such as graphic organizers

   - preview a text (e.g., in order to build a schema), noticing structural markers, such as headings and subheadings

   - focus on key word/phrases that signal that the text is heading in a particular direction

   - identify the particular kinds of language used in particular texts

• Analyze and evaluate poetry in order to recognize the use and effect of

   - sensory imagery

   - figurative language

   - 4 verse form

• Engage in oral reading activities, such as choral readings, and a variety of written responses, such as double entry journals, to identify and distinguish examples of verse form

• Form opinions and make judgments about literary works by analyzing and evaluating texts from more than one critical perspective, such as a social perspective

• Select, reject, and reconcile ideas and information in light of beliefs

• Make judgments about the quality of literary texts and performances by applying personal and academic criteria, such as that found in literary criticism

• Analyze and evaluate the intellectual and/or emotional impact of specific texts on the reader

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share reading experiences with a peer or adult; for example, read together silently or aloud, and discuss reactions to texts

• Consider the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the writer

• Understand and anticipate the author’s use of tone, diction, and language appropriate to social communication, in a variety of texts and conventions

• Recognize the types of language (e.g., informal vocabulary, culture-specific terminology, jargon, colloquialisms, and email conventions) that are appropriate to social communication

 

Grade 12 Writing

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 12 students demonstrate as they learn to write include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Use and integrate a wide range of organizational strategies to present information

• Define the meaning of and understand the consequences of plagiarism; investigate college and university policies

• Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Write interpretive and responsive essays of approximately five pages to

   - express judgments and support them through references to the text, using direct quotations and paraphrase

   - explain how the author’s use of literary devices, such as allegory, stream of consciousness, and irony, affects meaning

   - engage in a variety of prewriting experiences, such as using a variety of visual representations, to express interpretations, feelings, and new insights

• Use resources such as personal experience, knowledge from other content areas, and independent reading to create literary, interpretive, and responsive text

• Maintain a portfolio that includes literary, interpretive, and responsive writing

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Develop critiques from more than one perspective, such as historical, cultural, social, and psychological

• Use telecommunication to participate in listserv discussion groups

• Maintain a writing portfolio that includes writing for critical analysis and evaluation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write a condolence note, get-well card, or thank-you letter with writing partner(s)

• Respect the age, gender, and cultural traditions of the recipient

 

Grade 12 Listening

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 12 students demonstrate as they learn to listen include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Interpret and analyze information from media presentations, such as documentary films, news broadcasts, taped interviews, and debates

• Recognize the speaker’s use of voice, tone, diction, and syntax in school and public forums, debates, and panel discussions

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Interpret and respond to texts from a variety of genres, authors, and subjects

• Respond to authors’ reading and discussing their works

• Identify how format and language are used in presentations to communicate the author’s message and evoke a response

• Recognize how presentation styles affect the emotional responses of listeners

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Determine points of view to clarify positions, make judgments, and form opinions

• Evaluate content and organization of the presentations, applying criteria such as the validity of the speaker’s conclusion

• Evaluate the expertise and possible bias of the speaker in order to judge the validity of the content

• Recognize the use of protocols and traditional practices in debating, public speaking, interviewing, reviewing literary works, and other forms of speaking

• Evaluate the impact of the medium on the message

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Participate as a listener in social conversation with one or more people who are friends, acquaintances, or strangers

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the speaker

• Listen for multiple levels of meaning, articulated and unspoken

• Encourage the speaker with appropriate facial expressions and gestures

• Withhold judgment

• Appreciate the speaker’s uniqueness

 

Grade 12 Speaking

Literacy Competencies

Grade-Specific performance indicators

The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 12 students demonstrate as they learn to speak include

A literacy competency strand for grades 9–12 is under development and will be posted online when available.

Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

• Prepare and give presentations to a variety of audiences on a range of informational topics, using a variety of techniques, such as multimedia, group presentations, and dramatic approaches

• Give directions and explain complex processes

Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression.

• Present interpretations and responses to literary texts and performances in presentations to school and public audiences

Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation.

• Express opinions and make judgments about ideas, information, experiences, and issues in literary, scientific, and historical articles, in public documents, and in advertisements

• Present reasons, examples, and details from sources such as films to defend opinions or judgments

• Respond to constructive criticism

• Use visuals and technology to enhance presentation

Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction.

• Speak informally with familiar and unfamiliar people, individually and in group settings

• Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the listener

• Use social communication in workplace settings to foster trust and build goodwill

• Respond respectfully