Grade 6

Problem Solving Strand

Students will build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

Know the difference between relevant and irrelevant information when solving problems

6.PS.2 Understand that some ways of representing a problem are more efficient than others
6.PS.3 Interpret information correctly, identify the problem, and generate possible strategies and solutions
Students will solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.

Act out or model with manipulatives activities involving mathematical content from literature

6.PS.5 Formulate problems and solutions from everyday situations
6.PS.6 Translate from a picture/diagram to a numeric expression

Represent problem situations verbally, numerically, algebraically, and/or graphically

6.PS.8 Select an appropriate representation of a problem

Understand the basic language of logic in mathematical situations (and, or, and not)

Students will apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.
6.PS.10 Work in collaboration with others to solve problems
6.PS.11 Translate from a picture/diagram to a number or symbolic expression.

Use trial and error and the process of elimination to solve problems

6.PS.13 Model problems with pictures/diagrams or physical objects
6.PS.14 Analyze problems by observing patterns
6.PS.15 Make organized lists or charts to solve numerical problems
Students will monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.
6.PS.16 Discuss with peers to understand a problem situation
6.PS.17 Determine what information is needed to solve problem

Determine the efficiency of different representations of a problem

6.PS.19 Differentiate between valid and invalid approaches
6.PS.20 Understand valid counterexamples
6.PS.21 Explain the methods and reasoning behind the problem solving strategies used
6.PS.22 Discuss whether a solution is reasonable in the context of the original problem
6.PS.23 Verify results of a problem

Reasoning and Proof Strand

Students will recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.

Recognize that mathematical ideas can be supported using a variety of strategies

6.RP.2 Understand that mathematical statements can be supported, using models, facts, and relationships to explain their thinking
Students will make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

Investigate conjectures, using arguments and appropriate mathematical terms

6.RP.4 Make and evaluate conjectures, using a variety of strategies
Students will develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.

Justify general claims or conjectures, using manipulatives, models, expressions, and mathematical relationships

6.RP.6 Develop and explain an argument verbally, numerically, algebraically, and/or graphically
6.RP.7 Verify claims other students make, using examples and counterexamples when appropriate
Students will select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

Support an argument through examples/counterexamples and special cases

6.RP.9 Devise ways to verify results

Communication Strand

Students will organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication.

Provide an organized thought process that is correct, complete, coherent, and clear

6.CM.2 Explain a rationale for strategy selection
6.CM.3 Organize and accurately label work 
Students will communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.

Share organized mathematical ideas through the manipulation of objects, numerical tables, drawings, pictures, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, models, and symbols in written and verbal form

6.CM.5 Answer clarifying questions from others
Students will analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

Understand mathematical solutions shared by other students

6.CM.7 Raise questions that elicit, extend, or challenge others’ thinking 
6.CM.8 Consider strategies used and solutions found by others in relation to their own work
Students will use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

Increase their use of mathematical vocabulary and language when communicating with others

6.CM.10 Use appropriate vocabulary when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and rationale
6.CM.11 Decode and comprehend mathematical visuals and symbols to construct meaning

Connections Strand

Students will recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.

Understand and make connections and conjectures in their everyday experiences to mathematical ideas

6.CN.2 Explore and explain the relationship between mathematical ideas
6.CN.3 Connect and apply mathematical information to solve problems
Students will understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

Understand multiple representations and how they are related

6.CN.5 Model situations with objects and representations and be able to draw conclusions
Students will recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

Recognize and provide examples of the presence of mathematics in their daily lives


Apply mathematics to problem situations that develop outside of mathematics

6.CN.8 Investigate the presence of mathematics in careers and areas of interest
6.CN.9 Recognize and apply mathematics to other disciplines and areas of interest

Representation Strand

Students will create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Use physical objects, drawings, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations, or objects created using technology as representations


Explain, describe, and defend mathematical ideas using representations

6.R.3 Read, interpret, and extend external models
6.R.4 Use standard and nonstandard representations with accuracy and detail
Students will select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems.

Use representations to explore problem situations


Investigate relationships between different representations and their impact on a given problem

Students will use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.

Use mathematics to show and understand physical phenomena (e.g., determine the perimeter of a bulletin board)


Use mathematics to show and understand social phenomena (e.g., construct tables to organize data showing book sales)

6.R.9 Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., Find the missing value: (3 + 4) + 5 = 3 + (4 + ___ )

Number Sense and Operations Strand

Students will understand numbers, multiple ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

Number Systems


Read and write whole numbers to trillions


Define and identify the commutative and associative properties of addition and multiplication

6.N.3 Define and identify the distributive property of multiplication over addition
6.N.4 Define and identify the identity and inverse properties of addition and multiplication
6.N.5 Define and identify the zero property of multiplication
6.N.6 Understand the concept of ratio

Express equivalent ratios as a proportion

6.N.8 Distinguish the difference between rate and ratio
6.N.9 Solve proportions using equivalent fractions
6.N.10 Verify the proportionality using the product of the means equals the product of the extremes
6.N.11 Read, write, and identify percents of a whole (0% to 100%)
6.N.12 Solve percent problems involving percent, rate, and base
6.N.13 Define absolute value and determine the absolute value of rational numbers (including positive and negative)
6.N.14 Locate rational numbers on a number line (including positive and negative)
6.N.15 Order rational numbers (including positive and negative)
Students will understand meanings of operations and procedures, and how they relate to one another.



Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators


Multiply and divide fractions with unlike denominators.

6.N.18 Add, substract, multiply, and divide mixed numbers with unlike denominators
6.N.19 Identify the multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of a number
6.N.20 Represent fractions as terminating or repeating decimals
6.N.21 Find multiple representations of rational numbers (fractions, decimals, and percents 0 to 100)
6.N.22 Evaluate numerical expressions using order of operations (may include exponents of two and three)
6.N.23 Represent repeated multiplication in exponential form
6.N.24 Represent exponential form as repeated multiplication
6.N.25 Evaluate expressions having exponents where the power is an exponent of one, two, or three
Students will compute accurately and make reasonable estimates.


6.N.26 Estimate a percent of quantity (0% to 100%)
6.N.27 Justify the reasonableness of answers using estimation (including rounding)

Algebra Strand

Students will represent and analyze algebraically a wide variety of problem solving situations.

Variables and Expressions


Translate two-step verbal expressions into algebraic expressions

Students will perform algebraic procedures accurately.

Variables and Expressions


Use substitution to evaluate algebraic expressions (may include exponents of one, two and three)

Equations and Inequalities


Translate two-step verbal sentences into algebraic equations


Solve and explain two-step equations involving whole numbers using inverse operations

6.A.5 Solve simple proportions within context
6.A.6 Evaluate formulas for given input values (circumference, area, volume, distance, temperature, interest, etc.)

Geometry Strand

Students will use visualization and spatial reasoning to analyze characteristics and properties of geometric shapes.



Calculate the length of corresponding sides of similar triangles, using proportional reasoning


Determine the area of triangles and quadrilaterals (squares, rectangles, rhombi, and trapezoids) and develop formulas

6.G.3 Use a variety of strategies to find the area of regular and irregular polygons
6.G.4 Determine the volume of rectangular prisms by counting cubes and develop the formula
6.G.5 Identify radius, diameter, chords and central angles of a circle
6.G.6 Understand the relationship between the diameter and radius of a circle
6.G.7 Determine the area and circumference of a circle, using the appropriate formula
6.G.8 Calculate the area of a sector of a circle, given the measure of a central angle and the radius of the circle
6.G.9 Understand the relationship between the circumference and the diameter of a circle
Students will apply coordinate geometry to analyze problem solving situations.

Coordinate Geometry


Identify and plot points in all four quadrants


Calculate the area of basic polygons drawn on a coordinate plane (rectangles and shapes composed of rectangles having sides with integer lengths)

 Measurement Strand

Students will determine what can be measured and how, using appropriate methods and formulas.

Units of Measurement


Measure capacity and calculate volume of a rectangular prism


Identify customary units of capacity (cups, pints, quarts, and gallons)

6.M.3 Identify equivalent customary units of capacity (cups to pints, pints to quarts, and quarts to gallons)
6.M.4 Identify metric units of capacity (liter and milliliter)
6.M.5 Identify equivalent metric units of capacity (milliliter to liter and liter to milliliter)

Tools and Methods


Determine the tool and technique to measure with an appropriate level of precision: capacity

Students will develop strategies for estimating measurements.



Estimate volume, area, and circumference (see figures identified in geometry strand)

6.M.8 Justify the reasonableness of estimates
6.M.9 Determine personal references for capacity

Statistics and Probability Strand

Students will collect, organize, display, and analyze data.

Collection of Data


Develop the concept of sampling when collecting data from a population and decide the best method to collect data for a particular question

Organization and Display of Data


Record data in a frequency table

6.S.3 Construct Venn diagrams to sort data
6.S.4 Determine and justify the most appropriate graph to display a given set of data (pictograph, bar graph, line graph, histogram, or circle graph)

Analysis of Data


Determine the mean, mode and median for a given set of data

6.S.6 Determine the range for a given set of data
6.S.7 Read and interpret graphs
Students will make predictions that are based upon data analysis.

Predictions from Data


Justify predictions made from data

Students will understand and apply concepts of probability.



List possible outcomes for compound events

6.S.10 Determine the probability of dependent events
6.S.11 Determine the number of possible outcomes for a compound event by using the fundamental counting principle and use this to determine the probabilities of events when the outcomes have equal probability

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