Special Education

Accessible Instructional Materials 101

Accessible Instructional Materials 101:  What New York Teachers, Local Educational Agencies and Families Need to Know about NIMAS (Word - 215KB)

The following information was developed under the auspices of the AIM Consortium at CAST.  Primary authors and presenters were Joy Zabala, Project Manager of the AIM Consortium, and Scott Marfilius, Consultant to the AIM Consortium. For additional information and supporting tools, visit the website of the National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials at http://aim.cast.orgexternal link.

In this session, we will:

  • Introduce the legal mandate to ensure provision of accessible instructional materials and define terms
  • Illustrate how the NIMAS works
  • Discuss various ways to acquire specialized formats
  • Define the decision-making role of the IEP team and the legal issues that impact acquisition
  • Share available national and state supports and resources

Legal and Pedagogical Issues

Accessible Instructional Materials:  The Legal Connection

Provisions within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 require State and Local Education Agencies to ensure that textbooks and related core instructional materials are provided to students with print disabilities in specialized formats in a timely manner.

Section 300.172, Final Regulations of IDEA 2004

State and Local Education Agencies must also:  “Adopt the NIMAS”

SEAs and LEAs must include the requirement to produce a NIMAS file and deposit it in the NIMAC in all purchasing contracts.  There is no statutory requirement placed on publishers.

State and Local Education Agencies must also:  Decide whether to “coordinate with the NIMAC”

All 50 states have opted to coordinate with the NIMAC as a means for providing specialized formats in a timely manner to qualified students.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are “Related Core Materials?”

Printed textbooks and related printed core materials published with the texts…

  • Written and published primarily for use in elementary and secondary school instruction
  • Required by state education agency or local education agency for use by students in the classroom

What might “timely manner” mean?

  • Must be defined by states as mandated in Section 300.172 of the Final Regulations of IDEA 2004
  • Generally means “at the same time as other students receive their core instructional materials in print format”

“Which Textbooks and Related Core Materials”

Printed textbooks and related printed core materials published with the texts “published after July 19, 2006”

OSEP has interpreted “published” to mean “available for purchase”

What is a print disability?

It depends…

Why are specialized formats needed?

  • To provide students who are unable to obtain information through the use of traditional print materials with accessible materials appropriate to their individual needs
  • To enable students to gain the information they need to complete tasks, master IEP goals, and reach curricular standards

Principles of UDL

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) calls for…

  • Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge
  • Multiple means of expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know
  • Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners’ interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation

Materials

  • UDL places emphasis on using digital technology and other strategies and materials to support diverse learners
  • All digital materials are NOT accessible!

What are “Specialized Formats?”

  • Braille (Some states include other Braille-related formats in this definition)
  • Large print
  • Audio
  • Digital text
    • XML Files that are developed to the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) can be readily transformed into student-ready specialized formats
    • Digital Media can be “tagged” for semantics (meaning)

Sources of Accessible Instructional Materials

  • The National Instructional Materials Access Center (NIMAC)
  • Accessible Media Producers (AMPs)
  • Commercial Sources
  • Make Your Own
  • Other Sources

Decision-Making – Needs, Formats, and Eligibility

IEP Teams have the responsibilities related to the selection, acquisition and use of accessible instructional materials.

Responsibilities of Decision-Making Teams

  1. Establish need for instructional materials in specialized formats
  2. Select specialized format(s) needed by the student for educational participation and achievement
  3. Determine supports needed for effective use of specialized formats
  4. Commence SEA and/or LEA-defined acquisition steps that ensure provision of needed formats in a timely manner

Key Questions to Guide Decision-making about Accessible Instructional Materials

  • Does this STUDENT need instructional materials in specialized formats to access the curriculum and receive a free, appropriate, public education?
  • In which ENVIRONMENTS will specialized materials be used?
  • For which TASKS will the student require materials in which specialized format?
  • What TOOLS will the student and others need?
    • Formats?  Teaching?  Technology?  Training?  Accommodations?  Modifications?

Establishing Need

  • The Students – Students who have difficulty using text to the extent of being print disabled
  • Review the student’s evaluation information and present levels of achievement to determine whether the student has a disability-related difficulty with tasks related to print-based core instructional materials used across the curriculum
  • Is the student able to use standard print materials for educational participation and achievement?

IF YES… YOU ARE DONE   IF NO… The team explores the cause of the difficulty

  • Does the student have difficulty seeing the material? (Blindness or low vision)
  • Does the student have difficulty physically manipulating the material? (orthopedic impairment)
  • Does the student have the physical stamina necessary? (e.g. sitting upright, alertness) (other health impairments)
  • Does the student have difficulty decoding text/recognizing words?
  • Does the student have difficulty with fluency?
  • Does the student lose their place while reading/tracking?
  • Does the student have difficulty with comprehension skills?

Double-check these questions to be sure that the student’s difficulty with print related to their disability…

  • Is the student a proficient English language speaker?
  • Has the student received appropriate instruction in reading and math?

Selecting Format(s) and Supports

The Environment and Tasks – One format does not fit all…

Different alternate formats may be needed for different tasks in different environments

The Environments

When considering alternate formats, include all Environments in which making meaning from print is required in order to receive a free, appropriate, public education.  For example,

  • Core academic classes
  • Community-based programs
  • Home

The Tasks

When considering alternate formats, include any task for which the student is required to gain meaning from print materials to participate and achieve.  For example,

  • Gaining information from short text
  • Gaining information from large bodies of text
  • Producing text
  • Learning to use the format effectively (reading?)

Making this work for you… Who?  Where?  For What?

  • Commencing SEA and/or LEA-defined acquisition steps that ensure provision of needed formats in a timely manner – Acquiring what the student needs.
  • Eligibility for Sources of Accessible Instructional Materials (What you need to know, but may not want to know about who can get what from where).

Who qualifies for specialized formats?

  • Under the Copyright Act of 1931 as Amended, students with “print disabilities” are those who have been certified by a competent authority as unable to read printed materials because of: 
    • Blindness
    • A visual impairment
    • Physical limitations
    • An organic dysfunction

Who qualifies for specialized formats rendered from NIMAS XML files?

  • Students who are eligible under the Copyright Act of 1931 as Amended are those who have been certified by a competent authority as unable to read printed materials because of:
    • Blindness
    • A visual impairment
    • Physical limitations
    • An organic dysfunction
    • Students who qualify as a student with a disability under IDEA 2004

Competent Authorities for Blindness and Physical Disabilities

In cases of blindness, visual disability, or physical limitations “competent authority” is defined to include doctors of medicine, doctors of osteopathy, ophthalmologists, optometrists, registered nurses, therapists, professional staff of hospitals, institutions, and public or welfare agencies (e.g. social workers, case workers, counselors, teachers, and superintendents)

Organic Dysfunction

Persons certified by competent authority as having a reading disability resulting from organic dysfunction and of sufficient severity to prevent their reading printed material in a normal manner.

Competent Authorities for Organic Dysfunction

In the case of a reading disability from organic dysfunction, competent authority is defined as doctors of medicine who may consult with colleagues in associated disciplines.

Consider these Possibilities…

  • “Physical disability” or “organic dysfunction” might include a broader range of students
  • In IDEA 2004, Specific learning disability is defined as “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.”
  • Using the IDEA 2004 definition of specific learning disability, a strong case could be made that specific learning disabilities have a physical cause

Do all students who have reading difficulties have print disabilities?

  • Not all students with reading difficulties meet the criteria for “print disabilities” under the Copyright Act of 1931 as Amended
  • What about students who are not certified as having a “print disability” under the Copyright Act as Amended but still have difficulty obtaining and using information from printed materials?

The final Regulations of IDEA 2004 require that state education agencies make provisions for providing accessible core instructional materials to students with disabilities (served under the Act)

  • Who are not included under the definition of blind or other persons with print disabilities
  • When the materials are not producible from NIMAS files
  • In a timely manner… “at the same time as other children receive instructional materials” or however “timely manner” is defined by the state

Which leads to more questions…

  • What about students who are eligible under the Copyright Act as amended, but not served under IDEA 2004?
  • What about students who do not have identified disabilities but who have difficulty gaining meaning from printed materials?

Remember… If the student is not copyright exempt

  • NIMAS files may not be accessed through the NIMAC
  • If the IEP Team determines that a student needs materials in a specialized format but the student is not copyright exempt the state system may be able to provide guidance on how to acquire the needed specialized formats if the materials are:
    • Available for purchase
    • Available from other libraries that allow access to students with IEPs who are not copyright exempt
  • Producing accessible formats yourself does not relieve you of the responsibility to protect copyright.

The Tools

Selecting Format(s) and Supports

Tools that are needed by the student (and others) to do the print-based tasks in the environments where they need to be done

Selecting Alternate Formats

When the IEP Team has decided that an alternative format is needed, they must decide which format would be most appropriate for the student

Braille, Large Print, Audio, Digital

Determining Supports

Technology, Instruction, Training, Accommodations, Modifications

Braille

  • If the student is blind or visually impaired a certified teacher of the visually impaired should be involved in this decision
  • Review the results of the student’s functional vision evaluation, learning media assessment, and informal reading assessment to determine the most effective format for the student.  Some students who are blind or visually impaired do not need Braille
  • Input from an occupational therapist will be important if the student also has physical disabilities
  • Instruction – Braille instruction is critical until the student becomes fluent (generally over a period of several years)
  • Braille instruction must be provided by a teacher certified in that area
  • Supports –
    • Technology needed by the student for written output tasks – (report writing, note taking, etc)
    • Portability for using text in multiple environments

Large Print

  • Review the results of the student’s functional vision evaluation and learning media assessment to determine the most effective format for the student
  • Document specifics of large print required
  • Most effective and efficient print size – 18-20 points are typical.  Some need larger
  • Most effective font – APHont or san serif are clearer
  • Level of contrast between print and background
  • Environmental lighting – glare, level of light
  • Instruction – probably minimal for this format other than instruction in reading skills similar to that provided to other students at the same level
  • Supports –
    • Assistive technology supports such as magnifiers and CCTVs that may be more needed if student needs print considerably larger than “standard” large print
    • Assistive technology may be more effective and efficient than making the print extremely larg

Audio

  • Consider conducting a listening assessment
  • Level of understanding and comprehension when text is read aloud
  • Length of time student can listen with understanding
  • How student will “take notes” on longer listening assignments
  • Instruction – How and by whom use of audio text will be taught
  • Supports – The software that will be required to convert NIMAS, the technology needed to play audio files

Digital

  • Digital text can simultaneously provide audio, video, and, if needed, large print
  • Provides support for gaining meaning from text AND increasing reading skills
  • Flexibility – changes in size, rate, contrast, etc.
  • Supports – Technology that is required to use the text when and where it is needed – Hardware and software are typically required
  • Instruction and ongoing support

The AIM Consortium

CAST, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Development at Two Level-

State and Local Education Agencies & Student IEP Teams

Three Goals of the AIM Consortium

  • Facilitate the development of State systems for increasing the awareness and timely provision of accessible instructional materials via NIMAS/NIMAC for qualifying students and other means for non-qualifying students
  • Ensure that State systems for the identification, acquisition, and use of accessible instructional materials employ high quality procedures and practices
  • Produce related products and services scalable and made available to all States, OAs, and FAS, thus contributing to improving outcomes for all students with print disabilities

Quality Indicators for the Provision of Accessible Instructional Materials

  1. The education agency supports the provision of appropriate, high-quality instructional materials in specialized formats to all students with print disabilities who require them.
  2. The education agency supports the provision of appropriate specialized formats in a timely manner.
  3. The education agency develops and implements written guidelines to define the responsibilities and actions needed for effective and efficient provision of specialized formats.
  4. The education agency supports learning opportunities and technical assistance to facilitate the identification of students with print disabilities, as well as the selection, acquisition, and use of appropriate specialized formats.
  5. The education agency develops and implements a systematic process to monitor and evaluate the equitable, timely provision of appropriate, high-quality materials in specialized formats.
  6. The education agency uses data to guide changes that support continuous improvement in the selection, acquisition, and use of accessible instructional materials.
  7. The education agency allocates resources sufficient to ensure the delivery and sustainability of quality services to students with print disabilities.

Learning Supports

PowerPoints: 

http://aimcast.blogspot.comexternal link

http://aim.cast.orgexternal link

http://nimas.cast.orgexternal link

www.learningthroughlistening.com external link

Sorting through Features:  Using Accessible Instructional Materials In the Classroom

Assessment – Feature Match

Individual

  • Needs
  • Abilities
  • Expectations

Technology

  • Interface/Input
  • Processing
  • Output
  • Properties

Assessment of the Individual – Match Student Abilities and Needs to Product Features

Motor, Cognition, Language/Processing, Sensory

Functionality Version

  • Scan & Read
  • Read Only
  • Single User
  • Multiple User
  • Color/Black & White
  • Portability

Input (of Text) Features

  • Text Source input options (type in, scanner, Internet, text files, PDF files, Daisy files)
  • Navigation between pages/documents
  • (Go directly to a page, skim chapter by heading, bookmark where they left off)

Reading Features – Visual Feedback

  • Highlight as read (unit – sentence, paragraph, word)
  • Color (of text, of background, of highlight, of selection)
  • Size (of image, of text, enlargement of words as read)
  • Formatting (of image, of text)
  • Masking (text, similar words, parts within word

Reading Features – Auditory Feedback

  • Unit read (sentence, paragraph, word, highlight, heading)
  • Synthesizer/digitized
  • Synthesizer Language
  • Digitized recording capacity (voice notes, read over)
  • Reading speed, pace, pausing
  • Unit read (sentence, paragraph, word, highlight, heading)
  • Speech access (talking menus, dialog boxes
  • Word prediction list

Study Skill Features

  • Highlighting
    • Color options
    • Listing/extraction
  • Create new file with highlights
  • Word features
    • Dictionary
    • Syllabication
    • Spelling
    • Thesaurus
    • Homonyms
  • Annotations (adding information to reading materials)
    • Text notes (text to speech)
    • Voice notes (digitized speech)
    • Extract annotations
  • Bookmarking

Writing Features

  • Word prediction based upon…

    • As letters are typed
    • Frequency of use
    • Grammar
    • Phonetic
    • Custom Vocabulary
  • Outlining
      • Outline formatting within text
      • Outline created from highlighted/extracted text
    • Writing supports
      • Spell checker (talking, definition linked to dictionary)
      • Homonym checker (examples, word wizard, used in a sentence)

    Key questions to guide decision-making about Accessible Instructional Materials

    • Does this STUDENT need instructional materials in specialized formats to access the curriculum and receive a free, appropriate, public education?
    • In which ENVIRONMENTS will specialized materials be used?
    • For which TASKS will the student require materials in which specialized format?
    • What TOOLS will the student and others need?
    • Formats?  Teaching?  Technology?  Training?  Accommodations?  Modifications?
    • What tools will the student and others use in the classroom?

    Barriers to Student Achievement

    Barriers can exist in each of the four components:  Goals, Methods, Materials, Assessment

    Five Components of Reading

    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Phonics
    • Fluency
    • Vocabulary
    • Comprehension

    Comprehension

    • Comprehension is the essence of reading
    • It’s the goal of reading instruction
    • Comprehension strategies should be present in everyday teaching across the curriculum
    • As a strategic process, it enables readers to make connections and move beyond literal recall
    • Needs to be taught explicitly and strategically
    • Knowing students’ reading abilities is essential for teachers

    Students with Learning Differences may present difficulties:

    • Word recognition/decoding skills
    • Fluency
    • Language processing/linguistic ability
    • Vocabulary
    • Life experience/background knowledge
    • Attention
    • Memory
    • Meta-comprehension & application of strategies
    • Expressive language weakness
    • Visualizing & creating mental images
    • Acquiring information from print

    Textbooks

    Narrative Text "Alice in Wonderland" Beginning, middle, and end
    Plot
    Characters
    Structures
    Setting
    Expository Text Science Listing
    Cause/effect
    Compare/contrast
      Social Studies Problem/solutions
    Compare/contrast
    Time ordering

    Ciborowski, J. (1999).  Textbooks and the Students Who Can’t Read Them:  A Guide to Teaching Content

    Learning Styles/Strengths

    • Gifts and strengths are often overlooked
    • Assessment process does not identify strengths
    • Moves from deficit-oriented, remediation model of service delivery to student-centered, resource-oriented and compensatory model
    • Less emphasis on passive learning, more emphasis on alternative ways of learning

    Learning Through Listening

    • Supported reading
    • Allows students to focus on content
    • Makes learning possible, not easier
    • Levels the playing field
    • Provides a model of fluent readings

    Benefits of Supported Listening

    • Improve listening skills
    • Increase vocabulary
    • Improve word recognition skills
    • Teach the proper pronunciation or words
    • Previewing a textbook
    • Reviewing materials
    • Conducting research from multiple sources

    Steps to Improving Comprehension

    • Identify where difficulty occurs
    • Identify what the difficulty is
    • Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words
    • Look back through the text
    • Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty
    • Students should monitor their own comprehension
      • be aware of what they do understand
      • identify what they do not understand
      • use appropriate “fix-up” strategies to resolve problems in comprehension
    • Using graphic and semantic organizers
    • Answering questions
    • Generating questions
    • Recognizing story structure
    • Setting, initiating events, internal reactions, goals, attempts, outcomes
    • Summarizing
      • identify or generate main ideas
      • connect the main or central ideas
      • eliminate redundant and unnecessary information
      • remember what they read

    Accessible Instructional Materials:

    Braille, Audio, Digital Text, Large Print

    Implementation Ideas…

    • Introduce listening to text in one reading environment at a time
    • Only add reading output features as needed rather than starting with all features turned on & fade
    • Increase reading speed over time
    • Use lists of synonyms in place of long dictionary definitions
    • Use pre-reading strategies of highlighting, skimming & vocabulary review
    • Prepare read-along outlines, reading guides
    • Use during-reading strategies of highlighting/noting main ideas, answering prepared questions, predicting ahead, restating the information, story mapping
    • Use after-reading strategies of bookmarking sections for text preparation, paraphrase information, reflect upon reading, add notes to prepared outline

    Features of Electronic Reading Systems

    Functionality Version

    • Scan & Read
    • Read Only
    • Single User
    • Multiple User
    • Color
    • Black & White

    Input (of text) Features

    • Text Source input options (type in, scanner, Internet, text files, PDF files, Daisy files)
    • Navigation between pages/documents

    (Go directly to a page, skim chapter by heading, bookmark where they left off)

    Output Features

    Reading Features – Visual Feedback

    • Highlight as Read (unit – sentence, paragraph, word)
    • Color (of text, of background, of highlight, of selection)
    • Size (of image, of text, enlargement of words as read)
    • Formatting (of image, of text, enlargement of words as read)
    • Masking (text, similar words, parts within words)

    Reading Features – Auditory Feedback

    • Unit read (sentence, paragraph, word, highlight, heading)
    • Synthesizer/digitized
    • Synthesizer language
    • Digitized recording capacity (voice notes, read over)
    • Reading speed, pace, pausing
    • Unit read (sentence, paragraph, word, highlight, heading)
    • Speech access (talking menus, dialog boxes)
    • Word prediction list

    Study Skill Features – (Supports for Understanding Unknown Words & Reading Comprehension)

    • Highlighting
        • Color options
        • Listing/extraction
    • Create new file with highlights
    • Word Features
        • Dictionary
        • Syllabication
        • Spelling
        • Thesaurus
        • Homonyms
    • Annotations (adding information to reading materials)
        • Text notes (text to speech)
        • Voice notes (digitized speech)

      Writing Features

      • Word Prediction based upon…
        • As letters are typed
        • Frequency of use
        • Grammar
        • Phonetic
        • Custom vocabulary
      • Outlining
        • Outline formatting within text
        • Outline created from highlighted/extracted text
      • Writing Supports
        • Spell checker (talking, definition linked to dictionary)
        • Homonym checker (examples, word wizard, used in a sentence)

        Assessment Considerations when Exploring Scan and Read Systems

        Assessment – Feature Match

        Individual

        • Needs
        • Abilities
        • Expectations

        Technology

        • Interface/Input
        • Processing
        • Output
        • Properties

        Assessment of the Individual – Abilities & Needs to Assess

        • Motor
        • Cognition
        • Language/processing
        • Sensory

        Match Student Abilities & Needs to Product Features

        • Visual presentation options
        • Auditory presentation options
        • Scanning options
        • Others:  study skills, writing

        Selection, Acquistion and Use of Accessible Instructional Materials

        Student Name:                   Name of School:  

        Grade level:                       Reading Level:

        Educational Team Members:

                                                                                       

        Establish Need:

        Can the student effectively use the standard print-based core instructional materials to address curricular goals?

        • Yes  (proceed with IEP development)
        • No
            • student needs the same instructional materials in specialized format (proceed to the selection phase)
            • student needs alternative (different) instructional print materials (seek those materials)

          Describe the student’s characteristics/attributes as they relate to core instructional materials and participation in instruction (including prior experience with specialized formats).

          List by curricular content areas, the printed core instructional materials that the student is expected to use, and the tasks that the student is to do:

          Environments
          (Curricular Content Areas)

          Printed Core
          Instructional Materials (Utilized in Content Area)

          Tasks
          (What does the student need to be able to do with printed materials?)

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

          Selection of Specialized Format(s) and Features: (this is a sampling of features)

          Braille features

          • Embossed Braille
          • Refreshable Braille
          • Interlined Braille
          • Simultaneous Braille & audio

          Audio features

          • Human voices
          • Digital voices (high quality)
          • Audio speed
          • Volume
          • Pause/repeat/replay ease
          • Image descriptions
          • Navigation

          Large print features

          • Font size
          • Font spacing
          • Font type
          • Font color/background color
          • Page size
          • Image size
          • Image display (on/off)

          Digital text features

          • Font size/type/color/polarity
          • Highlighting
          • Enlargement
          • Text-to-speech
          • Voice
          • Rate
          • Navigation

          Enhanced digital text features

          • Text notes
          • Voice notes
          • Dictionary
          • Link to multimedia

          Other

          •                                    
          •                               
          •                                   

          Determine the needed support(s) for effective use of the specialized formats: (What does the IEP team need to think about for each format?)

          • What technology will be needed for the student to use the materials effectively?
          • What type of instruction (pedagogy) is needed for the student to use the materials effectively?
          • What type of training related to the tools is needed for the student, educators, and parents for the materials to be used effectively?
          • What type of service(s) is needed for the materials to be used effectively?
          • What type of accommodations/modifications is needed for the student to use the materials effectively?

          The Acquisition Process:

          • Student has been certified by a competent authority to have a “print disability” under the 1931 Act to Provide Books to the Adult Blind as Amended 1931 (copyright) due to:
            • Blindness…………………….documented on the IEP?   __ yes    __ not yet     __ no  
            • Visual Impairment………documented on the IEP?   __ yes    __ not yet     __ no   
            • Physical Limitations……documented on the IEP?   __ yes    __ not yet     __ no
            • Organic Dysfunction……medically documented?   __ yes    __ not yet     __ no
          • If the student is served under IDEA and has been certified as having a “print disability” which source files can be downloaded or assigned for conversion from the NIMAC?
            1. What is the acquisition process established by the SEA and/or the LEA?
            2. Who must be contacted to obtain the appropriate format?
          • If the student has been certified as having a “print disability” but source files are not in the NIMAC, how will specialized formats be obtained or prepared?
          1. What is the acquisition process established by the SEA and/or the LEA?
          2. Which Accessible Media Producer (AMP) can be used to obtain the needed format(s)?
          3. If materials must be created, how will this be done in a timely manner?
          • If the student has NOT been certified as having a “print disability,” how will specialized formats be obtained or prepared?
          1. What is the acquisition process established by the SEA and/or the LEA?
          2. Are materials available for purchase in specialized formats?
          3. If digital materials are available for purchase, are those materials accessible to this student? (eg. Read with a text-to-speech program or a screen reader, options changed, etc?)
          4. If materials must be created, how will this be done in a timely manner?

           Providing Supports for Use of Specialized Formats

          Refer to decisions about Supports for Effective Use of Specialized Formats (Page 3).  Arrange for the acquisition and/or provision of the supports so that they are in place when and where needed as soon as the materials are acquired.

    Last Updated: March 14, 2014