Special Education

Appendix C:  IEP and Lesson Plan Development Handbook

Appendix C: IEP and Lesson Plan Development Handbook

  1. Conduct and utilize data from regular standardized achievement testing that provides specific reports on the skills students have mastered and the skills that need improvement.
  2. Perform regular assessments in the classroom that range from formal testing to teacher observation of students as they work.
  3. Communicate and interact with students as they work.
  4. Gather information and use it to individualize instruction for every child.
  5. Conduct a continuous problem identification process so that specially-designed instruction can address those targeted problems.
  6. Believe students with disabilities can learn and help them do so by finding the right teaching materials and methods.

Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) means adapting what is taught, the methodology and/or the manner in which instruction is provided to meet the student’s unique needs.  SDI provides students with different avenues to acquire content knowledge; process information, construct meaning, and/or make sense of ideas.  Through SDI, teaching methodology and materials are adapted so that each student can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability.

SDI must include use of explicit direct instruction!

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Visual, written, verbal, physical, picture prompts and cues
  • Cue cards
  • Graduated guidance
  • System of least prompts
  • Instruction of American Sign Language
  • Computer assisted instruction
  • Multiple-modality strategies
  • Use of body language
  • Attending to the speaker
  • Other
  • Visual, written, tactual, verbal, physical, picture prompts and cues
  • Hand-under-hand vs. hand-over-hand physical guidance/exploration
  • American Sign Language
  • Switch activated devices
  • Augmentative communication devices
  • Dynamic screens
  • High technology communication devices
  • Communication boards/books/ cards
  • Picture-based communication
  • Establishing and maintaining eye contact
  • Switch accessibility
  • Scan accessibility
  • Educational interpreter
  • Other
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in listening strategies
  • Modeling
  • Chunking
  • Written prompts or directions
  • Preview-Teach-Review
  • Alternative note-taking
  • Graphic organizers
  • Preteach critical information and vocabulary
  • Other
  • Repeated directions
  • Frequent comprehension checks
  • Visual prompts
  • Alternative note-taking
  • Extended processing time
  • Paraphrasing, rephrasing, and summarizing
  • Extended time
  • Previewing questions
  • Preferential seating
  • Advance organizer
  • Focused, concrete statements
  • Digital recorder
  • Electronically formatted materials
  • Highlighted key words
  • Listening guides
  • Other
EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE/ORAL EXPRESSION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in how to respond to verbal prompts
  • Instruction in how to respond to cue cards
  • Instruction in how to respond to visual prompts
  • Guided repetitions
  • Guided rehearsal; use of scripts
  • Time delay strategies
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in conversational skills (i.e., initiating, maintaining, ending)
  • Word retrieval drills: categories, attributes, functions
  • Questioning techniques
  • Other
  • Verbal prompts
  • Cue cards
  • Visual prompts
  • Extended response time
  • Allowance for written tests
  • Recorded material
  • Preferential seating
  • Directions in multiple forms (i.e., restate, rephrase, oral directions)
  • Oral reading on a volunteer basis
  • Rehearsal; use of scripts
  • Alternative assessments in place of oral reports (i.e., displays, projects, written, etc.)
  • Video self-modeling
  • Questioning techniques
  • Other
VOICE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Modeling
  • Vocal strategies
  • Social skills instruction
  • Calming strategies
  • Instruction in self-monitoring strategies
  • Visualizing techniques
  • Instruction in recognition of vocal abusive patterns
  • Oral motor intervention
  • Other
  • Self-monitoring checklists
  • Calming strategies cues
  • Variety of questioning techniques
  • Signal system for recognizing abusive vocal patterns
  • Other
FLUENCY
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Modeling
  • Starter techniques
  • Instruction on maintaining eye contact
  • Instruction using choral responses
  • Instruction using reading responses
  • Instruction of relaxation strategies
  • Other
  • Extended response time
  • Opportunity to speak first in oral group situations
  • Individual instead of group presentations
  • Relaxation strategies
  • Self-monitoring
  • Other
RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in using visual, written, picture prompts and cues
  • Modeling
  • System of least prompts
  • Simultaneous prompting
  • Time delay
  • Instruction in how to respond to verbal cues
  • Instruction of core vocabulary with cue cards
  • Instruction in using visualization
  • Instruction in using verbal rehearsal
  • Cloze procedures
  • Direct instruction
  • Auditory bombardment of language targets
  • Verbal repetition
  • Instruction of mnemonic strategies
  • Preteach of critical information
  • Instruction for understanding of sarcasm, parody, and humor
  • Instruction in elements of critical thinking
  • Instruction in how to make inferences and predictions
  • Instruction in how to draw conclusions and make generalizations
  • Other
  • Preferential seating
  • Repetition of directions
  • Simple directions
  • Gestures and visual cues
  • Paraphrasing and rephrasing
  • Visual prompts
  • Concrete to abstract representations
  • Picture schedules
  • Picture cues
  • Object to picture schedule
  • Calendar/routine system
  • Sentence strips
  • Digital recorder
  • Self-cuing strategies
  • Gradual building of complexity of tasks
  • Teacher wait time
  • Other
PRAGMATICS
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using social scripting
  • Instruction using social stories
  • Instruction using written prompts
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in how to respond to verbal prompting
  • Guided response
  • Instruction in environmental prompting (i.e., personal space awareness)
  • Chaining
  • Shaping
  • Video self-monitoring
  • Role playing
  • Instruction in conversational turn-taking, initiating/terminating conversation, commenting, and asking questions
  • Instruction in relevant emotion/feeling words
  • Other
  • Role playing
  • Monitoring and quick feedback
  • Peer buddy/monitor
  • Sensory issues addressed
  • Opportunities for taking turns, initiating/ terminating conversation, commenting, and asking questions
  • Environmental prompts (i.e., personal space awareness)
  • Other

 

BASIC READING
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Grapho-Phonic strategies (visual/auditory) including letter/sound knowledge, phonemic awareness, decoding
  • Visual strategies including word recognition and visual memory for words
  • Auditory strategies including language structure at the word, sentence, and text level
  • Fluency strategies
  • Direct Braille code instruction
  • Direct instruction in functions and use of portable note-taking device (e.g., Braille Note, VoiceNote, Braille ‘Speak, etc.)
  • Instruction of functions and use of low vision devices (assistive technology for near and distance viewing)
  • Instruction in accessing alternate formats and associated technology
  • Meaning strategies including word meanings and associations and precision in word usage
  • Instruction in identifying and pronouncing words and reading fluently orally including:
    • Using context clues
    • Visual word recognition strategies including environmental print
    • Word analysis strategies such as prefixes, suffixes, compound words, and word derivations
    • Text management strategies such as rereading/reading ahead, deep reading, skimming/scanning
    • Decoding strategies such as identifying word families, chunking, point and slide, looking for familiar words parts
    • Cross-check across systems (does the word make sense, does it sound like language, do the letters match the sounds) or ask another reader
  • Other
  • Graphic organizers
  • Prompting and cuing
  • Recorded materials
  • Alternate electronic/digitized materials
  • Oral/visual presentation of material above independent reading level
  • Extended time
  • Large print (specified font size)
  • Highlighted material
  • Colored overlays for reading/glare reduction (specified color)
  • Direct/indirect lighting
  • Photocopied materials on preferred colored paper
  • Tracking guides
  • Braille
  • Manipulatives (i.e., letter tiles, flash cards, etc.)
  • Access to technology
  • Limited visual clutter/stimuli
  • Slant board/stand
  • Use of black marker ONLY on dry erase board
  • Talking books
  • Screen enlargement software
  • Magnifier
  • Monocular/binocular
  • Copy of class notes
  • Regular text along with large print texts for colored illustrations and maps
  • Other
READING COMPREHENSION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in how to use graphic organizers
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in “Cloze” procedures
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Instruction using advance organizers
  • Instruction using visual prompts
  • Preteaching concepts/vocabulary
  • LEARN strategy
    • List what you know
    • Explore what you want to know
    • Access information
    • Reflect on what you’re learning
    • Now make connections
  • KWL strategy
    • List what you know
    • Tell what you want to know
    • Tell what you learned
  • Instruction in verbal summarization
  • Instruction using open-ended stories
  • QAR strategy
    • Question
    • Answer
    • Response
  • Instruction using choral reading
  • Instruction using paired reading
  • Instruction using echo reading
  • Instruction using visual imagery
  • Instruction using story mapping
  • Think aloud strategies
  • Instruction in: monitoring for meaning, determining importance, creating mental images, synthesizing, relating new to known, questioning, inferring
  • Instruction and support for specialized software and equipment
  • Applying Braille reading (or use of low vision devices for literacy tasks) in authentic contexts
  • Instruction in hand/finger skills, tactile discrimination/perception skills
  • Integrated use of visual skills (e.g., scanning for information, reading charts, graphs, maps)
  • Direct Braille code instruction
  • Instruction in functions and use of portable note-taking device
  • Diagnostic instruction
  • Other
  • Recorded books with appropriate pacing
  • Recorded materials
  • Electronic/digitized materials
  • Highlighting
  • Large print materials/textbooks (specified font size)
  • Standard text to accompany large print text for colored illustrations/maps
  • Braille
  • Reader
  • Paraphrasing
  • Oral/visual presentation of materials above independent reading level
  • Manipulatives (i.e., story strips, etc.)
  • Advance organizers
  • Tactual graphics
  • Visual prompts
  • Frequent rest breaks to reduce eye fatigue and strain
  • Limited visual clutter/stimuli
  • Slant board/stand
  • Note-taking guides
  • Study guides
  • Highlighted study guides
  • Use of black marker ONLY on dry erase board
  • Talking books
  • Screen enlargement software
  • Magnifier
  • Monocular/binocular
  • Colored overlays for reading/glare reduction (specify color)
  • Copy of classroom notes
  • Regular text along with large print texts for colored illustrations and maps
  • Reading stand
  • Other

WRITTEN LANGUAGE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in graphic organizers
  • Modeling
  • Tactile kinesthetic tracing
  • Repetitive practice
  • Instruction using advance organizers
  • Visual and physical prompts and cues
  • Small group instruction in the writing process including: prewriting activities, writing, revising, editing, and publishing
  • Instruction in idea development, structural patterns, sequencing, organization, standards of correctness, awareness of audience and purpose
  • Instruction in open-response writing, writing-on-demand, transactive writing, personal writing, literary writing, reflective writing, and writing-to-learn (graphic organizers, journals, note-taking)
  • Instruction in mechanics and usage of slate/stylus
  • Instruction in mechanics and use of Braillewriter/Note talking device
  • Instruction in functions and use of magnification systems
  • Sequential instruction for keyboarding skills
  • Other
  • Scribe (specify how and when a scribe will be used)
  • Paraphrasing
  • Assistive technology
  • Cue cards (i.e., definitions, examples, story starters, picture prompts, etc.)
  • Graphic organizers
  • Journals, logs, notebooks
  • Rubrics/scoring guides
  • Editing checklists
  • Production of written pieces
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Error monitoring, self-monitoring
  • Modified tests and assignments
  • Copies of overheads (notes, directions, organizers, etc.)
  • Preferential seating
  • Scribe for obscan sheets
  • Highlighting
  • Color-coded direction words
  • Student paraphrasing of directions
  • Raised line paper
  • Manipulatives (i.e., sentence strips, words cards, personal and classroom work banks, etc.)
  • Digital recorder to talk into and write from
  • Pencil grips
  • Specialized writing utensils (20/20 pen, #1 lead pencil, bold marker, slate/stylus, etc.)
  • Specialized writing materials (Braillewriter, portable note taking device, signature/letter guide, typoscope, computer with screenreader/ magnification software)
  • Use of high contrasting maker on dry-erase board
  • Limited visual clutter/stimuli
  • Slant board/stand
  • Retaking of tests
  • Access to technology
  • Other
MATH CALULATION AND REASONING
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Multi-sensory teaching strategies
  • Time delay
  • Most to least prompts
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in computation and reasoning strategies, word problem strategies
  • Instruction in functions and use of accessible graphing calculator software
  • Instruction in functions and use of portable note-taking device
  • Instruction in functions and use of low vision devices
  • Guided practice
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Chunking
  • Touch five coin counting strategy
  • Instruction in use of a calculator
  • Other
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Cue cards with problem solving strategies, definitions, examples, models, flow charts, process steps
  • Small group instruction
  • Visual, nonverbal, verbal, physical, picture, and written prompts and cues
  • Repetitive practice
  • Accommodated tests/assignments
  • Advance organizers
  • Copies of overheads including notes, organizers, examples
  • Extended time
  • Graph paper/vertical lined paper
  • Manipulatives/concrete representations
  • Tactile graphs/graphics
  • Calculator (large display/talking/graphing/audible graphing calculator software)
  • Low vision devices
  • Abacus
  • Magnifier
  • Colored overlay
  • Number line
  • Study guides
  • Peer buddy/peer tutoring
  • Oral presentation of materials/assessments
  • Assistive technology
  • Other
TASK COMPLETION/ON TASK BEHAVIOR
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Modeling
  • Partial participation
  • Instruction in how to use self-talk
  • Video self-modeling
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction in how to self-monitor/evaluate
  • Instruction in student task analysis
  • Instruction in using graphic organizers
  • System of least prompts
  • Instruction using simultaneous prompting
  • Instruction in how to respond to cueing (verbal, nonverbal, visual, picture, photo, etc.)
  • Other
  • Accommodated tests and assignments
  • Use of timer
  • Dual set of materials for home and school
  • Paraphrasing
  • Extended time
  • Rubrics and scoring guides
  • Peer tutor/mentor
  • Oral presentation of materials
  • Redirection and corrective feedback
  • Behavior contract
  • Environmental modifications
  • Assistive technology
  • Graphic organizers
  • Cue cards
  • Previewing assignment
  • Other
FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using task analysis
  • Instruction in self-monitoring strategies
  • Differential reinforcement
  • System of least prompts
  • Instruction using role playing
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in how to use self-talk
  • Mnemonics strategies
  • Instruction using advance organizers
  • Video self-modeling
  • Other
  • Time delay
  • Increased wait time
  • Advance organizers
  • Verbal prompts and cues
  • Paraphrasing
  • Preferential seating
  • Endless loop tape
  • Alternate modes for directions including pictures, photos, etc.
  • Contracts
  • Oral presentation of materials
  • Visual supports
  • Assistive technology
  • Clarification of directions
  • Other
RATE/SPEED OF WORK
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in how to respond to verbal prompts and cues
  • Instruction in self-monitoring strategies
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction using role playing
  • Modeling
  • Other
  • Checklists
  • Use of timer
  • Schedule
  • Pictorial representation of task
  • Audio stimulation to support rhythmic pace (music)
  • Repeated practice
  • Assistive technology
  • Work systems
  • Extended time
  • Reduced/increased level of lighting
  • Preferential seating

FOLLOWING A SCHEDULE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in how to respond to verbal prompts and cues
  • Instruction in self-monitoring strategies
  • Instruction in reading a schedule and a site map
  • Instruction using role playing
  • Modeling
  • System of least prompts
  • Instruction using task analysis
  • Graduated guidance
  • Instruction in how to use picture/tactual agenda
  • Instruction in creating and following a personal schedule
  • Other
  • Checklists
  • Use of timer
  • Picture/tactual schedule
  • Color/tactual coding
  • Highlighting
  • Repeated practice
  • Map (i.e., school, classroom, community, etc.)
  • Object schedules
  • Calendar/routine system
  • Physical/verbal cues
  • Mental mapping/routes
  • Other
ATTENDANCE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Multi-sensory instructional strategies
  • Instruction in how to use a token economy
  • Instruction in self-monitoring strategies
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Other
  • Contracts
  • Escort to class
  • Proximity to classroom
  • Pictorial/tactual representation to task
  • Alternate dismissal
  • Interest inventory to identify motivators
  • Other
ORGANIZATION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using task analysis
  • Instruction using video self-monitoring
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Instruction in organization systems
  • Modeling
  • Other
  • Duplicates
  • Extended time
  • Shortened assignment
  • Dual set of materials for school and home
  • Step-by-step instructions
  • Color/tactual coding
  • Assignment notebook
  • Calendar
  • Peer tutor/buddy
  • Dividers and organizers
  • Work systems
WORKING INDEPENDENTLY
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Graduated guidance
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Instruction using task analysis
  • Other
  • Shortened assignments
  • Study carrel
  • Work systems
  • Assignment and tasks given in segments
  • Redirection (verbal, nonverbal, physical, visual, etc.)
  • Fading prompts
  • Positive/corrective feedback
  • Other
DECISION MAKING
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction in how to use self-talk
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Instruction using role playing
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Instruction in evaluating and choosing
  • Instruction using social stories
  • Other
  • Picture/tactual cues
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Physical prompts and cues
  • Assistive technology
  • Other
SELF-EVALUATION
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using task analysis
  • Self-monitoring strategies
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Instruction in self-evaluation
  • Modeling
  • Mnemonic strategies
  • Instruction in self-advocacy skills
  • Other
  • Picture cues
  • Work systems
  • Rubrics and scoring guides
  • Progress graphs
  • Checklists
  • Peer editing
  • Self-monitoring
  • Other
SOCIAL COMPETENCE
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using video self-modeling
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Instruction in using verbal/visual prompts and cues
  • Instruction in using written prompts and cues
  • Instruction in replacement behaviors
  • Modeling
  • Corrective feedback with reteaching
  • Instruction in using student study teams
  • Planned ignoring
  • Behavior intervention plan
  • Instruction in explicit social skills
  • Instruction using role playing
  • De-escalation strategies
  • Relaxation strategies
  • Instruction in self-advocacy skills (visual portfolio, accessing materials in appropriate format, requesting assistance from peers and adults, personal care)
  • Community-based instruction to foster independent living skills
  • Instruction in appropriate postural/body gestures
  • Other
  • Student repeats directions
  • Frequent, positive feedback and specific praise
  • Daily/weekly home contact
  • Contracts
  • Student-created reinforcement menu
  • Sequential directions
  • Short, concise directions
  • Frequent breaks
  • Opportunities for movement
  • Signal, inference cues
  • Proximity control
  • Structured transitions
  • Timer
  • Reinforcement menu
  • Peer tutor/buddy
  • Repeated practice of learned skills in authentic, nonpervasive environments/situations
  • Other
PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING
Specially Designed Instruction (SDI)
WHAT THE TEACHER TEACHES
Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS)
WHAT THE STUDENT NEEDS
  • Instruction using video self-modeling
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Modeling
  • Instruction in using verbal, visual, written, and physical prompts and cues
  • Corrective feedback with reteaching
  • Hand-under-hand vs. hand-over-hand guidance
  • Redirection
  • Instruction in how to use self-instruction
  • Self-monitoring strategies
  • Instruction in how to use self-talk
  • System of least prompts
  • Instruction in how to use visualization
  • Instruction using social stories
  • Instruction of specific skills
  • Instruction in Orientation and Mobility skills to foster safe and independent travel in familiar/unfamiliar environments
  • Mental mapping skills
  • Directionality/spatial awareness concepts
  • Human guide techniques
  • Other   
  • One-on-one instruction
  • Small group instruction
  • Partial participation
  • Modified equipment
  • Modified rules
  • Modified tests, activities, assignments
  • Self-instruction
  • Self-monitoring
  • Self-talk
  • Extended/shortened time
  • Peer tutor
  • Shorter distances
  • Decreased level of difficulty
  • Extra practice of skills
  • Lower goal/target
  • Alternate activities
  • Adapted play area
  • Well-defined boundaries
  • Human guide
  • Larger/auditory goal/target
  • Larger/lighter bat, racquet, etc.
  • Frequent rest periods
  • Slower pace
  • Assistive technology
  • Other

Adapted from the Kentucky Special Education Cooperatives, January 2009.  Revised by NYS RSE-TASC SDI workgroup 2013

 

Last Updated: June 24, 2014