Section 200.22 Program standards for behavioral interventions*
Behavioral interventions for students with disabilities shall be provided in accordance with this section and those other applicable provisions of this Part and/or Part 201 that are not inconsistent with this section.
(a) Assessment of student behaviors. For purposes of this section, an assessment of student behaviors shall mean a functional behavioral assessment (FBA), as such term is defined in section 200.1(r) of this Part.
(1) A FBA shall be conducted as required in section 200.4 of this Part and section 201.3 of this Title.
(2) The FBA shall, as appropriate, be based on multiple sources of data including, but not limited to, information obtained from direct observation of the student, information from the student, the student’s teacher(s) and/or related service provider(s), a review of available data and information from the student's record and other sources including any relevant information provided by the student’s parent. The FBA shall not be based solely on the student’s history of presenting problem behaviors.
(3) The FBA shall provide a baseline of the student's problem behaviors with regard to frequency, duration, intensity and/or latency across activities, settings, people and times of the day and include the information required in section 200.1(r) of this Part in sufficient detail to form the basis for a behavioral intervention plan for the student that addresses antecedent behaviors, reinforcing consequences of the behavior, recommendations for teaching alternative skills or behaviors and an assessment of student preferences for reinforcement.
(b) Behavioral intervention plan. (1) The CSE or CPSE shall consider the development of a behavioral intervention plan, as such term is defined in section 200.1(mmm) of this Part, for a student with a disability when:
(i) the student exhibits persistent behaviors that impede his or her learning or that of others, despite consistently implemented general school-wide or classroom-wide interventions;
(ii) the student’s behavior places the student or others at risk of harm or injury;
(iii) the CSE or CPSE is considering more restrictive programs or placements as a result of the student’s behavior; and/or
(iv) as required pursuant to section 201.3 of this Title.
(2) In accordance with the requirements in section 200.4 of this Part, in the case of a student whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, the CSE or CPSE shall consider strategies, including positive behavioral interventions and supports and other strategies to address that behavior. If a particular device or service, including an intervention, accommodation or other program modification is needed to address the student’s behavior that impedes his or her learning or that of others, the IEP shall so indicate. A student’s need for a behavioral intervention plan shall be documented on the IEP and such plan shall be reviewed at least annually by the CSE or CPSE.
(3) Except as provided in subdivision (e) of this section, a behavioral intervention plan shall not include the use of aversive interventions.
(4) The behavioral intervention plan shall identify:
(i) the baseline measure of the problem behavior, including the frequency, duration, intensity and/or latency of the targeted behaviors. Such baseline shall, to the extent practicable, include data taken across activities, settings, people and times of the day. The baseline data shall be used as a standard to establish performance criteria and against which to evaluate intervention effectiveness;
(ii) the intervention strategies to be used to alter antecedent events to prevent the occurrence of the behavior, teach individual alternative and adaptive behaviors to the student, and provide consequences for the targeted inappropriate behavior(s) and alternative acceptable behavior(s); and
(iii) a schedule to measure the effectiveness of the interventions, including the frequency, duration and intensity of the targeted behaviors at scheduled intervals.
(5) Progress monitoring. The implementation of a student’s behavioral intervention plan shall include regular progress monitoring of the frequency, duration and intensity of the behavioral interventions at scheduled intervals, as specified in the behavioral intervention plan and on the student's IEP. The results of the progress monitoring shall be documented and reported to the student's parents and to the CSE or CPSE and shall be considered in any determination to revise a student's behavioral intervention plan or IEP.
(c) Use of time out rooms. A time out room is an area for a student to safely deescalate, regain control and prepare to meet expectations to return to his or her education program. Time out rooms are to be used in conjunction with a behavioral intervention plan in which a student is removed to a supervised area in order to facilitate self-control or to remove a student from a potentially dangerous situation and as provided in paragraph (3) of this subdivision.
(1)Each school which uses a time out room as part of its behavior management approach shall ensure that the school’s policy and procedures on the use of the time out room are developed and implemented consistent with this subdivision, including the physical and monitoring requirements, parental rights and IEP requirements for students with disabilities. The school's policy and procedures shall minimally include:
(i) prohibiting placing a student in a locked room or space or in a room where the student cannot be continuously observed and supervised;
(ii) factors which may precipitate the use of the time out room;
(iii) time limitations for the use of the time out room;
(iv) staff training on the policies and procedures related to the use of time out room;
(v) data collection to monitor the effectiveness of the use of time out rooms; and
(vi) information to be provided to parents.
(2) A student’s IEP shall specify when a behavioral intervention plan includes the use of a time out room for a student with a disability, including the maximum amount of time a student will need to be in a time out room as a behavioral consequence as determined on an individual basis in consideration of the student’s age and individual needs.
(3) Except for unanticipated situations that pose an immediate concern for the physical safety of a student or others, the use of a time out room shall be used only in conjunction with a behavioral intervention plan that is designed to teach and reinforce alternative appropriate behaviors.
(4) The school district shall inform the student’s parents prior to the initiation of a behavioral intervention plan that will incorporate the use of a time out room for a student and shall give the parent the opportunity to see the physical space that will be used as a time out room and provide the parent with a copy of the school’s policy on the use of time out rooms.
(5) The physical space used as a time out room shall provide a means for continuous visual and auditory monitoring of the student. The room shall be of adequate width, length and height to allow the student to move about and recline comfortably. Wall and floor coverings should be designed to prevent injury to the student and there shall be adequate lighting and ventilation. The temperature of the room shall be within the normal comfort range and consistent with the rest of the building. The room shall be clean and free of objects and fixtures that could be potentially dangerous to a student and shall meet all local fire and safety codes.
(6) The time out room shall be unlocked and the door must be able to be opened from the inside. The use of locked rooms or spaces for purposes of time out is prohibited.
(7) Staff shall continuously monitor the student in a time out room. The staff must be able to see and hear the student at all times.
(8) The school shall establish and implement procedures to document the use of the time out room, including information to monitor the effectiveness of the use of the time out room to decrease specified behaviors.
(9) For an education program operated pursuant to section 112 of the Education Law and Part 116 of this Title, if a provision of this section relating to use of time out rooms conflicts with the rules of the respective State agency operating such program, the rules of such State agency shall prevail and the conflicting provisions of this section shall not apply.
(d) Emergency Interventions. (1) For purposes of this subdivision, emergency means a situation in which immediate intervention involving the use of reasonable physical force pursuant to section 19.5(a)(3) of this Title is necessary.
(2) Use of emergency interventions. (i) Emergency interventions shall be used only in situations in which alternative procedures and methods not involving the use of physical force cannot reasonably be employed.
(ii) Emergency interventions shall not be used as a punishment or as a substitute for systematic behavioral interventions that are designed to change, replace, modify or eliminate a targeted behavior.
(3) Staff training. Staff who may be called upon to implement emergency interventions shall be provided with appropriate training in safe and effective restraint procedures in accordance with section 100.2(l)(1)(i)(g) of this Title and section 200.15(h)(1) of this Part as applicable.
(4) Documentation. The school must maintain documentation on the use of emergency interventions for each student, which shall include the name and date of birth of the student; the setting and the location of the incident; the name of the staff or other persons involved; a description of the incident and the emergency intervention used, including duration; a statement as to whether the student has a current behavioral intervention plan; and details of any injuries sustained by the student or others, including staff, as a result of the incident. The parent of the student shall be notified and documentation of emergency interventions shall be reviewed by school supervisory personnel and, as necessary, the school nurse or other medical personnel.
(5) Applicability. For an education program operated pursuant to section 112 of the Education Law and Part 116 of this Title, if a provision of this section relating to emergency interventions conflicts with the rules of the respective State agency operating such program, the rules of such State agency shall prevail and the conflicting provision of this section shall not apply.
(e) Child-specific exception to use aversive interventions to reduce or modify student behaviors. A child-specific exception to the prohibition of the use of aversive interventions set forth in section 19.5 of this Title may be granted for a school-age student, in accordance with the procedures outlined in this subdivision, only during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years; provided that a student whose IEP includes the use of aversive interventions as of June 30, 2009 may be granted a child-specific exception in each subsequent school year, unless the IEP is revised to no longer include such exception. No child-specific exception shall be granted for a preschool student.
(1 ) Aversive interventions shall be considered only for students who are displaying self-injurious and/or aggressive behaviors that threaten the physical well being of the student or that of others, and only to address such behaviors.
(2) No child-specific exception shall be granted for interventions used as a consequence for behavior which are intended to induce pain or discomfort that include ice applications, hitting, slapping, pinching, deep muscle squeezes, use of an automated aversive conditioning device, the combined simultaneous use of physical or mechanical restraints and the application of an aversive intervention; withholding of sleep, shelter, bedding, bathroom facilities, denial or unreasonable delays in providing regular meals to the student that would result in a student not receiving adequate nutrition; the placement of a child unsupervised or unobserved in a room from which the student cannot exit without assistance or actions similar to these interventions at the discretion of the Commissioner.
(3) Whenever a CSE is considering whether a child-specific exception is warranted, the school district shall submit an application to the commissioner in a form prescribed by the commissioner requesting a review of student specific information by an independent panel of experts.
(4) The commissioner shall refer the application to an independent panel of experts appointed by the commissioner or commissioner's designee for a recommendation to the CSE as to whether a child-specific exception is warranted. The panel shall be comprised of three professionals with appropriate clinical and behavioral expertise to make such determinations.
(5) The panel shall review the written application; the student's IEP; the student's diagnosis(es); the student’s functional behavioral assessment; any proposed, current and/or prior behavioral intervention plans for the student, including documentation of the implementation and progress monitoring of the effectiveness of such plans; and other relevant individual evaluations and medical information that allow for an assessment of the student’s cognitive and adaptive abilities and general health status, including any information provided by the student’s parent.
(6) The panel's recommendation to the CSE that a child-specific exception is warranted shall be based on the professional judgment of the panel that:
(i) the student is displaying self-injurious or aggressive behaviors that threaten the physical well being of the student or that of others and a full range of evidence-based positive behavioral interventions have been consistently employed over an appropriate period of time and have failed to result in sufficient improvement of a student’s behavior; or
(ii) the student's self-injurious or aggressive behaviors are of such severity as to pose significant health and safety concerns that warrant the use of aversive interventions to effect rapid suppression of the behavior and a range of nonaversive prevention strategies have been employed and have failed to provide a sufficient level of safety.
(7) The panel shall notify the school district and the commissioner of its recommendation as to whether a child-specific exception is warranted and the reasons therefor. For students whose current IEP does not include a child-specific exception, the panel shall provide such notice within 15 business days of receipt of an application.
(8) The CSE shall determine, based on its consideration of the recommendation of the panel, whether the student's IEP shall include a child-specific exception allowing the use of aversive interventions. The determination to provide a child-specific exception shall be made by the CSE and not by a subcommittee. The CSE shall request the participation of the school physician member in such determination. The school district shall notify and provide a copy of the student's IEP to the commissioner when a child-specific exception has been included in the student's IEP.
(9) Any IEP providing for a child-specific exception allowing the use of aversive interventions shall identify the specific:
(i) self-injurious and/or aggressive targeted behavior(s);
(ii) aversive intervention(s) to be used to address the behavior(s); and
(iii) aversive conditioning device(s) and/or mechanical restraint device(s) where the aversive intervention(s) includes the use of such device(s).
(10) Nothing in this section shall authorize the use of aversive interventions without the informed written consent of the student's parent.
(11) Any such child-specific exception shall be in effect only during the time period the IEP providing such exception is in effect. If the continued use of an aversive intervention for a student is being considered for subsequent IEP(s), the CSE shall submit an annual application to the commissioner for each such IEP(s). If the student's IEP is amended or a subsequent IEP is adopted to no longer include a child-specific exception, the school district need not notify the panel but shall submit a revised copy of the student's IEP to the commissioner.
(12) For an education program operated pursuant to section 112 of the Education Law and Part 116 of this Title, if a provision of this section relating to the use of aversive interventions conflicts with the rules of the respective State agency operating such program, the rules of such State agency shall prevail and the conflicting provision of this section shall not apply.
(13) Coordination with licensing agencies. Nothing in this section shall authorize a school or agency to provide aversive interventions that are otherwise prohibited by the State agency licensing such program.
(f) Program standards for the use of aversive interventions.
(1) Applicability. (i) The requirements in this subdivision shall apply to any public school, BOCES, charter school, approved private school, State-operated or State-supported school in this State and an approved out-of-State day or residential school that proposes to use aversive interventions subject to the approval of the Department.
(ii) For an education program operated pursuant to section 112 of the Education Law and Part 116 of this Title, if a provision of this section relating to the use of aversive interventions conflicts with the rules of the respective State agency operating such program, the rules of such State agency shall prevail and the conflicting provision of this section shall not apply.
(2) General requirements. Any program that employs the use of aversive interventions to modify an individual student's behavior as authorized pursuant to subdivision (e) of this section shall comply with the following standards:
(i) The program shall provide for the humane and dignified treatment of the student. The program shall promote respect for the student’s personal dignity and right to privacy and shall not employ the use of threats of harm, ridicule or humiliation, nor implement behavioral interventions in a manner that shows a lack of respect for basic human needs and rights.
(ii) Aversive intervention procedures may be used only if such interventions are recommended by the CSE consistent with the student’s IEP and behavioral intervention plan as determined by the CSE.
(iii) Aversive intervention procedures shall not be the sole or primary intervention used with a student and shall be used in conjunction with other related services, as determined by the CSE, such as verbal or other counseling services, speech and language therapy and/or functional communication training.
(iv) Aversive interventions shall be combined with reinforcement procedures, as individually determined based on an assessment of the student’s reinforcement preferences.
(v) Aversive interventions shall be implemented consistent with peer-reviewed research based practices and shall include individualized procedures for generalization and maintenance of behaviors and for the fading of the use of such aversive interventions.
(vi) The use of aversive interventions shall be limited to those self-injurious or aggressive behaviors identified for such interventions on the student’s IEP.
(vii) Whenever possible, the use of aversive interventions shall apply the lowest intensity for the shortest duration and period of time that is effective to treat the problem behavior and employ strategies that increase the effectiveness of mild levels of aversive interventions. In the event the aversive intervention fails to result in a suppression or reduction of the behavior over time, alternative procedures shall be considered that do not include increasing the magnitude of the aversive intervention.
(viii) The use of any aversive conditioning device used to administer an electrical shock or other noxious stimuli to a student to modify undesirable behavioral characteristics shall be limited to devices tested for safety and efficacy and approved for such use by the United States Food and Drug Administration where such approval is required by Federal regulation. The magnitude, frequency and duration of any administration of aversive stimulus from such a device must have been shown to be safe and effective in clinical peer-reviewed studies. The use of automated aversive conditioning devices is prohibited.
(ix) No program may combine the simultaneous use on a student of a physical or mechanical restraint device with another aversive intervention.
(3) Human Rights Committee. (i) Each school that uses aversive interventions with students shall establish a Human Rights Committee to monitor the school’s behavior intervention program for any student being considered for or receiving aversive interventions to ensure the protection of legal and human rights of individuals.
(ii) Each Human Rights Committee shall be comprised of individuals not employed by the school or agency, which shall include at least one licensed psychologist with appropriate credentials in applied behavior analysis; one licensed physician, physician’s assistant or nurse practitioner; one registered dietician or nutritionist; one attorney, law student or paralegal; and one parent or parent advocate and may include not more than two additional individuals selected by the school or agency. In addition, when the purpose of the Human Rights Committee meeting includes a review of an individual New York State student’s program, a representative of the school district or agency placing the student in the program and a representative of the department shall be invited to participate.
(iii) The Human Rights Committee shall meet at least quarterly to review, monitor and investigate the implementation of students’ behavioral intervention plans that include aversive interventions. A written report on the findings and recommendations of the Human Rights Committee regarding an individual student shall be provided to the CSE of the student and to the agency that placed the student in the program.
(4) Supervision and training requirements. Aversive interventions shall be administered by appropriately licensed professionals or certified special education teachers in accordance with Part 80 of this Title and sections 200.6 and 200.7 of this Part or under the direct supervision and direct observation of such staff. Training shall be provided on a regular, but at least annual basis, which shall include, but not be limited to, training on:
(i) safe and therapeutic emergency physical restraint interventions;
(ii) data collection of the frequency, duration and latency of behaviors;
(iii) identification of antecedent behaviors and reinforcing consequences of the behavior;
(iv) approaches to teach alternative skills or behaviors including functional communication training;
(v) assessment of student preferences for reinforcement,
(vi) assessing and responding to the collateral effects of the use of aversive interventions including, but not limited to, effects on a student’s health, increases in aggression, increases in escape behaviors and/or emotional reactions;
(vii) privacy rights of students; and
(viii) documentation and reporting of incidents, including emergency restraints and injuries.
(5) Parent consent. Aversive interventions shall be provided only with the informed written consent of the parent and no parent shall be required by the program to remove the student from the program if he or she refuses consent for an aversive intervention. A parent shall be given a copy of the school's policies and procedures on the use of aversive interventions.
(6) Quality assurance reviews. The program providing aversive interventions shall conduct periodic reviews of all incident reports relating to such interventions to ensure that practices are clinically sound, supported by proper documentation and consistent with these program standards and the school’s policies and procedures as approved by the department.
(7)Progress monitoring. (i) The program shall provide for ongoing monitoring of student progress, including the collection and review of data and information. Such information shall include reports on the assessment of and strategies used to address any indirect or collateral effects the use of aversive interventions may be having on the student, including, but not limited to, increases in aggressive or escape behaviors, health-related effects and/or emotional reactions. The program shall submit quarterly written progress reports on the implementation of the student’s behavioral intervention program to the CSE and to the agency that placed the student in the program.
(ii) A school district that places a student in a program that uses aversive interventions with such student shall be responsible to ensure that the student’s IEP and behavioral intervention plan are being implemented. The CSE shall convene at least every six months, or more frequently as needed, to review the student’s educational program and placement for any student for whom the CSE has recommended the use of aversive interventions. Such review shall include the review of written progress monitoring and incident reports, documentation from observations of and, as appropriate, interviews with the student in the program and the concerns of the student’s parent. A representative of the school district shall observe the student at least every six months and, as appropriate, interview the student in the program and communicate regularly with the student’s parent and shall report the results thereof to the CSE.
(8) Policies and procedures. Each school that proposes to use aversive interventions pursuant to a child-specific exception shall submit its policies and procedures consistent with this subdivision to the department for approval prior to the use of such interventions. Only those schools with policies and procedures approved by the department on or before June 30, 2007 shall be authorized to use such interventions.