Why Oral Language Experience is not Enough

Frequency of Word Use in Major Sources of Oral and Written Language (Hayes & Ahrens, 1988)

Rare Words per 1,000

I. Printed texts

Newspapers 68.3
Popular magazines 65.7
Adult books 52.7
Children's books 30.9
Preschool books 16.3

II. Television texts

Adult shows 22.7
Children's shows 20.2

III. Adult speech

College graduates talk with friends/spouses 17.3