"Ensuring adequate ongoing literacy development for all students in the middle and high school years is a more challenging task than ensuring excellent reading education in the primary grades, for two reasons:

  1. secondary school literacy skills are more complex, more embedded in subject matters, and more multiply determined;

  2. adolescents are not as universally motivated to read better or as interested in school-based reading as kindergartners."

Biancarosa & Snow, (2005)