Findings from Research

Seminal research conducted in the 1980s

  • Reviews of research reported significant positive effects for both types of strategy (i.e., teacher and student) use;

  • The most effective were comprehension monitoring, graphic organizers, story structure, question answering, question generating, summarization, and multiple strategies;

  • Teaching strategies in multiple combinations is superior to teaching strategies one at a time.

(e.g., Armbuster, Bereiter, Carnine, Campione & Brown, Curtis, Dechsler, Ellis, Idol, Lenz, Lovett, Palincsar, Raphael, Rosenshine, Schumacher).