THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
ALBANY, NY 12234

OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES

 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDES for LITERACY - PDF PDF Document (556 KB)

1. Early Literacy Instructional Practice
2. Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)
3. Adolescent Literacy (High School)
4. Specially Designed and Intensive Reading for Students with Disabilities
5. Systemic Support

The Special Education Training and Resource Center (SETRC) network is one of VESID’s primary resources for school improvement in New York State. This Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guide is one of a series that has been developed for use by the SETRC network to guide their work in assessment of programs and provision of professional development, support and technical assistance to districts and schools to improve results for students with disabilities.

The Guides are intended to be used to support a process that includes:

  • Assessing the quality of a school district’s instructional programs and practices in the areas of literacy, behavioral supports and interventions; and delivery of special education services;
  • Determining priority need areas; and
  • Prescribing and planning activities to change practices and improve outcomes for students with disabilities.

 

 

The New York State Education Department (NYSED) gratefully acknowledges participation of the following individuals in the development of these documents:


Literacy Work Group

Marcia Atwood – SETRC, Questar III BOCES
Cindy Bishop – SETRC, Ulster BOCES
Helene Bradley – SETRC, New York City DOE
Lynn Gallo – SETRC, Otsego Northern Catskill BOCES
Naomi Gershman – SETRC, Nassau BOCES
Sharon Hance – SETRC, Erie I BOCES
Karen Howard – SETRC, Onondaga-Cortland Madison BOCES
Bambi Levine – SETRC, New York City DOE
Laurie Levine – Regional SETRC, Rockland BOCES
Teri Marks – SETRC, Oswego BOCES
Barbara Miller – NYSED/VESID
Sue Woodworth – NYSED/VESID
Lori Strong, Ph.D., - The College of St Rose



 

James P. DeLorenzo
Statewide Coordinator for Special Education
NYSED

 



Patricia J. Geary
Coordinator, Special Education Policy and Professional Development, NYSED

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document contains hypertext links or pointers to information created and maintained by other public and private organizations. These links and pointers are provided for the user's convenience. The Education Department does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. Further, the inclusion of links or pointers to particular items in hypertext is not intended to reflect their importance, nor is it intended to endorse any views expressed, or products or services offered, on these outside sites, or the organizations sponsoring the sites.

The State Education Department grants permission to New York State public schools, approved private schools and nonprofit organizations to copy this for use as a review and quality improvement guide. This material may not otherwise be reproduced in any form or by any means or modified without the written permission of the New York State Education Department. For further information, contact the VESID Special Education Office at (518) 473-2878 or write to VESID, Room 1624 One Commerce Plaza, Albany, New York 12234

 


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Phonemic awareness

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Lessons provide a sequential range of activities representing structured and sequential development of aural skills.
  • Staff can articulate that phonemic awareness involves sounds as opposed to printed letters.
  • Daily opportunities exist for students to manipulate sounds (ex: segment sounds, blend sounds, omit sounds, replace sounds).

 

Anchor charts are posters or visual aids created and posted within classrooms to illustrate and/or remind students of a skill or strategy and its use. 
A link with further terms can be found at:
http://www.stenhouse.com/pdfs/BuhrowG0400%20pp171-174.pdf external link

Corrective feedback is used during reading instruction and intervention to identify errors, provide additional instruction, and allow the student to develop internal thinking skills to utilize when reading independently.  The process is meant to be dynamic and student focused.  A link of interest is:   http://www.studydog.com/SDsystematic.aspexternal link

Phonemic Awareness is a reader's ability to recognize that spoken language is made up of a series of individual sounds.

Think Aloud external linkis a reading strategy wherein the teacher explicitly models the thinking skills being used as a test is approached.  A sample lesson plan can be found at: 


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:  Early Literacy  Instructional Practice

Component:  Phonics, decoding

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Phonics instruction is explicit, sequenced, and systematic.
  • Speech to print correspondence, concepts of print, and letter recognition activities are incorporated into the instructional period.
  • Repeated practice reading and writing with patterns, blending and sounding out text.
  • Word attack skills are taught through direct instruction and practiced in decodable, connected text.

 

Connected text is used during instruction to allow students the opportunity to utilize the skills that have been taught by reading phrases, sentences, paragraphs that represent coherent thoughts.
 
Decodingexternal link is what readers do when they use their knowledge of letter-sound relationships to identify words. When readers intentionally use the letter-sound and syllable-sound connection, they may call this process "sounding out" words. Decoding becomes automatic for good readers who identify most words rapidly, but even good readers use decoding skills when they encounter an unfamiliar word.

Elkonin Boxes can be used during phonics instruction and are a visual representation of the sounds heard in words.  Students listen for sound patterns that they have been taught and place a tile (or letter) into a box on a card or sheet of paper with one tile representing each sound.  Ex: The word "bat: would have three tiles; one for /b/ one for /a/ and one for /t/.  An additional resource link that may be helpful is:  http://bogglesworldesl.com/elkonin_boxes.htmexternal link

Orthographic or Orthography is a complete writing system for a language or languages. Orthographies include the representation of word boundaries, stops and pauses in speech, and tonal inflections. Source: http://www.sedl.org/reading/framework/glossary.htmlexternal link

Phonics is the understanding that there is a pattern and relationship between the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language and the letters and spellings (graphemes) that represent those sounds in written text.

Quick Writes are a literacy strategy designed to reflect on learning. This type of writing assignment can be used at the beginning, middle, or end of a lesson and takes three to five minutes. Short, open-ended questions are usually given.

Word Analysis or Word Study is an activity conducted during instructional reading time wherein the sounds and patterns learned during phonics instruction are utilized in reading words and text.


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Fluency, automatic reading of text

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Teachers monitor fluency at every level (name, sound, sight word, phrase, sentence, passage).
  • Students self-monitor rate of reading.
  • Instructional materials are available on independent and instructional levels for all.
  • Opportunities to read a piece of text with fluency and prosody are done in the instructional block.
  • Students are instructed on high frequency sight words for instant recognition.

 

Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. They group words quickly to help them gain meaning from what they read. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking.  Fluency = Accuracy + Rate + Expression  Sources: http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/reading_first1fluency.html external link  and http://www.linkslearning.org/reading_links/readingmanuals/FLUENCYPARTICIPANT.pdfexternal link

Prosody is using the features of rhythm, intonation, and phrasing when reading.

Repeated Reading is a strategy that involves student's reading a passage aloud or silently several times to improve fluency and correct errors. Related Link: http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/UsingRepeatedReading.htmexternal link

Whisper reading is a fluency strategy wherein all students are reading/whispering aloud at their own rate.  The teacher monitors by walking around and listening.  Related Link: http://www.donorschoose.org/donors/proposal.html?id=108110&zone=402external link
 


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Vocabulary

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • A variety of culturally and linguistically relevant media is used as a source of vocabulary including stories, songs, pictures, newspapers, etc…
  • Instruction recognizes diverse levels of background knowledge and scaffolded teaching.
  • Direct and contextual methods of vocabulary instruction are evident and include instruction on how and when to use context to figure out a word.
  • Multiple opportunities to learn and utilize new words are incorporated throughout the school day and across settings.

 

Context clues are sources of information outside of words that readers may use to predict the identities and meanings of unknown words. Context clues may be drawn from the immediate sentence containing the word, from text already read, from pictures accompanying the text, or from definitions, restatements, examples, or descriptions in the text. Source: http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/glossary/glossary.htmlexternal link

Direct vocabulary instruction refers to students learning vocabulary when they are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension.

Scaffold or scaffolded instruction means that during instruction, teachers assist and guide students so that they can read, learn, and respond to text in ways they may not be able to do without support. Teachers continue to provide this support until students are able to effectively read or write independently. Scaffolding student learning is especially important when students are reading a challenging text or writing a difficult piece. Examples of scaffolded instruction are: helping students to sound out the letters in unfamiliar words; providing a graphic organizer and discussing the major parts of a text before reading; supplying a beginning sentence or idea as a start for writing; and reading aloud with students as they are reading.  Source: http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/readingk2/front/keyterms3.html external link

Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. In general, vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.  Source: http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/reading_first1vocab.html external link


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Reading and Listening Comprehension

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Reading comprehension strategies for specific purposes are planned for and explicitly taught.
  • Students can articulate the characteristics of different texts.
  • Background knowledge is considered and planned for in instructional areas.
  • Connections to text (text to self, text to author, text to text, text to world) are planned for and explicitly taught.
  • Idiomatic language is explored and explained.

 

Comprehensionexternal link is understanding a text that is read, or the process of "constructing meaning" from a text. Comprehension is a "construction process" because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the text in the reader's mind.

Idiomatic Language is defined as an expression that does not mean what it literally says. Hence, its meaning is often quite different from the word-for-word translation and this can impact a student's comprehension. 

Story Retell is a classroom based strategy to check and monitor student comprehension of materials read.  Story retells consist of a series of open ended questions that the student responds to.  Ex:  What happened at the beginning of the story?

Think Aloud is a reading strategy wherein the teacher explicitly models the thinking skills being used as a text is approached.  A sample lesson plan can be found at:  http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=139external link


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Written Expression

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Composition includes generating and organizing ideas, drafting, feedback, revising, editing, proofing and publishing combined with daily opportunities to organize, transcribe and edit thoughts in writing.
  • Several approaches are used for building sentences.
  • Grammar, sentence composition and paragraph organization are emphasized.
  • Students write for a variety of purposes/audiences.
  • Writing is connected to all curricular areas.
  • Use of voice and expanded vocabulary are modeled and present in student writing.
  • Students utilize authentic writing for a variety of purposes.

 

Cloze activities require students to read a passage with missing key words and use context to fill in the correct words.  Some cloze activities have a word bank for students to select from and others require students to use their own vocabulary.

Graphic Organizers are visual aids for organizing thoughts prior to writing.

Mentor or anchor texts are student writing samples used as benchmarks, displaying rubric traits for a particular prompt. For instance, for a given prompt, there might be 36 anchor papers, one for each trait and each score. A separate set of anchor papers is needed for each writing prompt. Source: http://www.schoolworld.com/information/anchor-paper.htmexternal link

Rubricsexternal link are a set of scoring guidelines for evaluating student work. 

Word wall folders are portable and can be student specific versions of the classroom word wall.  Students can refer to the word wall folder when creating written work. 

Written expression refers to the understanding that what one thinks can be spoken and what is spoken can be written down. 


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key Key Question: 

Indicator:  Early Literacy  Instructional Practice

Component:  Spelling and Handwriting

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Teaching component skills is organized & explicit.
  • Techniques that build fluency, accuracy, and automaticity in writing are incorporated into daily instruction.
  • Instruction is at student’s developmental level.
  • Repeated practice of high frequency words is planned for to increase automaticity.
  • Spelling instruction is differentiated to accommodate diverse learners.
  • Instruction is provided in whole class, small group and individual models.

 

 

Automaticity in reading and writing refers to the ability to recognize without expending cognitive energy on processing the individual letters or words. 


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Early Literacy Instructional Practice

Component:  Progress Monitoring

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Assessment is a regular extension of instruction and is ongoing, used to identify students’ strengths & needs, determine progress, and inform instruction.
  • Data are used to group/regroup students for instruction on an ongoing basis.
  • Teachers are trained to administer, score, and interpret assessment measures they are asked to administer.
  • Valid, reliable, efficient, and meaningful assessments are selected for specific purposes.

 

 


Research Links:
http://www.readinga-z.com/research/phonological.htmlexternal link
http://idea.uoregon.edu/~ncite/documents/techrep/tech21.htmlexternal link
http://www.ednews.org/articles/523/1/Phonemic-awareness-What-does-it-mean/Page1.htmlexternal link
http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_phono_awareness.aspexternal link
www.projectpro.com/ICR/Research/Phonics/Summary.htmexternal link
http://www.stenhouse.com/pdfs/0346ch01.pdfexternal link
http://www.edresearch.info/phonics.aspexternal link
http://www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreading/publications/reading_first1phonics.html external link
http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_fluency.asp#seexternal link
http://www.fluency.org/external link
http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4468external link
http://idea.uoregon.edu/~ncite/documents/techrep/tech13.htmlexternal link
www.encounters.jp/mike/professional/publications/vocabulary.html external link
http://www.ncld.org/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=521external link
http://www.ciera.org/library/instresrc/compprinciples/index.htmlexternal link
http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/bibs/writ-ele.html external link
http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/1/snap3.htmlexternal link
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/96external link
http://www.spellingsociety.org/journals/j16/research.phpexternal link
http://www.lessonplanlibrary.com/external link
http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/2/cu4.html external link
http://www3.cbe.iastate.edu/CRCD/ref/ASEE_PAPER_03.pdf external link



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key Key Questions: 

       

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Direct, Explicit Comprehension Instruction

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • A variety of comprehension strategies and how, why, when, and where to use them (e.g., questioning, clarifying, inferring, predicting, and summarizing) are taught.
  • Graphic organizers are used before, during, and after reading.
  • Metacognitive strategies such as comprehension monitoring are taught.
  • Application of strategies in multiple contexts across all disciplines occurs.
  • Vocabulary instruction is direct, extended, and deep with multiple exposures and opportunities for its usage.
  • Direct instruction (modeling, guided practice, independent practice,) of strategies
  • Corrective, extended feedback
  • Scaffolding
  • Think Alouds
  • Utilization of visual heuristics (graphic organizers, visual prompts)
  • Directed Reading Thinking Activities(DRTA)
  • Computer, multi media resources

 

 

Corrective feedback is used during reading instruction and intervention to identify errors, provide additional instruction, and allow the student to develop internal thinking skills to utilize when reading independently.  The process is meant to be dynamic and student focused.  A link of interest is:   http://www.studydog.com/SDsystematic.aspexternal link

Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) are lessons designed by teachers to engineer stopping and thinking points in a text.   A source is: http://www.learningpt.org/literacy/adolescent/strategies/drta.phpexternal link

Metacognition literally means "big thinking." You are thinking about thinking.  Questioning, visualizing, and synthesizing information are all ways that readers can examine their thinking process.

Scaffold or scaffolded instruction means that during instruction, teachers assist and guide students so that they can read, learn, and respond to text in ways they may not be able to do without support. A source is: http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/readingk2/front/keyterms3.html external link

Think Aloud is a reading strategy wherein the teacher explicitly models the thinking skills being used as a text is approached.  A sample lesson plan can be found at:  http://web.grps.k12.mi.us/academics/5e/thinkaloud.html external link

Visual heuristicsexternal linkare learning aids with a graphic presentation. 


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Literacy Instruction Across the Curriculum

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • The various text structure types are taught.
  • Heuristics and mnemonics are utilized to facilitate and enhance. acquisition of content
  • A variety of texts are used to accommodate student diversity and differentiate instruction.

 

 

Heuristicsexternal link are learning aids.

Mnemonics are devices to help us remember (aide memoire or memory aide). They come in many varieties and flavours, and can aid memorization of many types of information. This section concentrates on mnemonics related to words and numbers.  A source is: http://www.fun-with-words.com/mnemonics.htmlexternal link

Text structure refers to the semantic and syntactic organizational arrangements used to present written information.  A source is: http://www.literacymatters.org/content/text/intro.htm external link


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Motivation and Self Directed Learning

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Instruction is interactive and engaging.
  • Delivery of instruction takes place in groupings of varied sizes (dyads, small and large groups).
  • Students self-select text when possible.
  • Instruction is scaffolded to facilitate mastery.
  • Relevant background information and authentic purposes for learning are provided.
  • Modeling of strategies
  • Vocabulary building
  • Cooperative learning
  • Self-selected reading
  • Focused tutoring
  • Classroom libraries
  • Variety of materials at multiple levels
  • Recording students’ completion of selections

 

Dyadexternal link refers to a pair.

Scaffold or scaffolded instruction means that during instruction, teachers assist and guide students so that they can read, learn, and respond to text in ways they may not be able to do without support. Teachers continue to provide this support until students are able to effectively read or write independently. Scaffolding student learning is especially important when students are reading a challenging text or writing a difficult piece. Examples of scaffolded instruction are: helping students to sound out the letters in unfamiliar words; providing a graphic organizer and discussing the major parts of a text before reading; supplying a beginning sentence or idea as a start for writing; and reading aloud with students as they are reading.  Source:
http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/readingk2/front/keyterms3.html external link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Support for Struggling Readers  (See also Specially Designed Intensive Reading) 

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Instruction is provided to different groups/classes based on need –word level skills, advanced decoding/fluency, comprehension strategies, critical thinking/.analysis in reading and writing.
  • Scaffolded instruction is provided until students have mastered skills and application.
  • A variety of formal and informal measures are used to monitor students’ progress and guide instruction.
  • Accommodations and modifications are made to allow access to the curriculum.
  • Comprehensive literacy/language arts program written for older students
  • Smaller group and/or classes
  • Focus on word level skills
  • Group reading practice
  • Fluency building activities
  • Directed reading thinking activities
  • Focused tutoring
  • Systematic, explicit instruction
  • Technology such as text-to-speechexternal link software and/or screen reading programsexternal link

 

Scaffold or scaffolded instruction means that during instruction, teachers assist and guide students so that they can read, learn, and respond to text in ways they may not be able to do without support. Teachers continue to provide this support until students are able to effectively read or write independently. Scaffolding student learning is especially important when students are reading a challenging text or writing a difficult piece. Examples of scaffolded instruction are: helping students to sound out the letters in unfamiliar words; providing a graphic organizer and discussing the major parts of a text before reading; supplying a beginning sentence or idea as a start for writing; and reading aloud with students as they are reading.  Source:
http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/readingk2/front/keyterms3.htmlexternal link

Text-to-speech software and screen reading software packages are assistive technology items which allow students to access electronic texts independently while the computer reads the text aloud. 



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key    Key Question: 

 

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Intensive Writing

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • The writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) is taught.
  • Reading and writing activities are connected.
  • Instruction in is included and taught directly in all disciplines.
  • Note-taking, outlining strategies and summarization strategies are taught across the disciplines.
  • Opportunities are provided for students to participate in collaborative writing activities.
  • Instruction emphasizes not only forms and conventions, but also writing for varied purposes and audiences.
  • Rubrics
  • Student observation data
  • Student writing sample analysis
  • Quick writes
  • Peer conference
  • Guided writing
  • Self-regulated strategy development
  • Collaborative writing
  • Instruction in the conventions of written English

 

Quick Writes are a literacy strategy designed to reflect on learning. This type of writing assignment can be used at the beginning, middle, or end of a lesson and takes three to five minutes. Short, open-ended questions are usually given.

Rubrics are a set of scoring guidelines for evaluating student work.  A link to information and sample rubrics: http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://www.relearning.org/resources/PDF/rubric_sampler.pdfexternal link

Self regulation is the ability to assess affective, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics, strengths, and needs and apply strategies to make meaning.  A source: http://www.ldonline.org/article/6207external link



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Adolescent Literacy (Middle Level)

Component:  Ongoing Formative Assessment of Students

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • A variety of assessment strategies and tools are used on an ongoing basis to inform instruction.
  • Data are used to group and regroup students for instruction.
  • Teachers are trained to administer, score, and interpret assessment measures they are asked to administer.
  • There is standardized scoring of writing and literacy measures.
  • Valid, reliable, efficient, and meaningful assessments are selected for specific purposes.
  • Universal screening measures
  • Rubrics
  • Portfolios
  • Conference notes
  • Student intervention plans and records of implementation and outcomes
  • Student profiles

 


Formative assessment is often done at the beginning or during a program, thus providing the opportunity for immediate evidence for student learning in a particular course or at a particular point in a program. Classroom assessment is one of the most common formative assessment techniques. Source: http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspx external link

Rubrics are a set of scoring guidelines for evaluating student work.  A link to information and sample rubrics: http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://www.relearning.org/resources/PDF/rubric_sampler.pdfexternal link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (High School)

Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   High School Literacy

Component:  Direct Literacy Instruction across Disciplines (Content Areas)

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Teachers use direct instruction to teach cognitive (i.e., reading comprehension and vocabulary) and metacognitive strategies. 
  • Teachers explicitly model comprehension strategies using discipline materials in multiple contexts.
  • Students practice specific comprehension strategies in isolation and in context.
  • Teachers differentiate instruction (e.g., content, process, product) to meet student needs.
  • Teachers know students’ skills, reading levels, and skill deficits.
  • Teachers require strategy use in assignments (oral and written).
  • Direct instruction of literacy skills within the content areas
  • Variety of instructional grouping formats (e.g., large group, small group, individual, dyad)
  • Cooperative learning, peer assisted learning
  • Materials written at a range of readability levels
  • Variety of products that demonstrate student learning
  • Use of heuristics such as reader’s marks, 2-column notes, graphic organizers.
  • Use of vocabulary, comprehension and metacognitive strategies during instruction.

 

Pre-reading strategies activate and build upon background knowledge, and teach vocabulary words/concepts. During-reading strategies increase comprehension, and Post-reading strategies summarize and consolidate knowledge and concepts. Example of strategies can be found at http://www.thecenterlibrary.org/cwis/cwisdocs/pdfs/list-reading-strategies.pdf external link 

Differentiated instruction is purposeful planning that maximizes each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.  Teachers adapt their methods for instruction to the diverse interests and abilities of learners. Additional information can be found at http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html external link

Direct instruction is explicit, sequenced, planned lessons designed for student mastery. For more information refer to http://www.nifdi.org/external link
 
Explicitly Modelexternal link provides students with a clear, multi-sensory model of a skill or concept by the teacher.

Metacognitiveexternal link refers to thinking about cognition in or to the thinking and reasoning about one's own thinking.
  



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (High School)

Image of Key        Key Questions: 

Indicator:   High School Literacy

Component:  Reading to Learn

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Students read texts written at a range of readability levels in order to access the curriculum in each discipline.
  • Students have many opportunities to apply comprehension strategies when reading for understanding.
  • Students use a variety of tools for learning the meaning of unknown vocabulary.

 

  • Conversations between teacher and students with probative questions, queries, and other critical thinking prompts (e.g., Authentic conversations)
  •  Diverse texts of varied genre available
  • Texts written at a range of readability levels    
  • Application of learned comprehension strategies (e.g., reciprocal questioning, note-taking, paraphrasing, graphic organizers.
  • Flexible, varied group size (e.g., large, small, individual) and cooperative learning formats.
  • Variety of instructional activities (e.g., group investigation, discussion, Computer Assisted Instruction).

 

Diverse text uses alternative resizing materials, short stories, songs, menus, recipes, advertisements, different levels of text, highlighted text.
  
Authentic conversations are natural compelling conversations among students that result in increased information, encouragement and understanding is accomplished by asking simple, yet deep, questions that are meaningful to the students. Resources for this can be found at http://www.compellingconversations.com/external link  



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (High School)

Image of Key    Key Questions:                  

Indicator:   High School Literacy

Component:  Motivation and Self-directed Learning

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Students have multiple opportunities to self-select some of the texts used in each discipline (i.e., autonomy).
  • Instruction is relevant to students’ lives (i.e., relatedness).
  • Instruction is matched to students’ differing skills, abilities, knowledge, and interests.
  • Instructional supports and aids that facilitate student access to discipline content and facilitate student success are used (i.e., competency).
  • Common learning goals
  • Student choice in materials, activities, and products
  • Varied models of instruction (e.g., direct instruction, group investigation, discovery instruction)
  • Reading materials written at a range of readability levels
  • Varied instructional groupings
  • Varied types of assessment both formative and summative (e.g., projects, presentations, papers, reports, exams, self-assessment)

 

Student-centered environment means classrooms focus on the needs and abilities of students and on topics that are relevant to the students’ lives, needs, and interests. Students themselves are actively engaged in creating, understanding, and connecting to knowledge and learning. Examples at
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED398556&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED398556external link

Direct instruction is explicit, sequenced, planned lessons designed for student mastery. For more information refer to http://www.nifdi.org/external link
Group investigation method of instruction which students work collaboratively in small groups to examine, experience, and understand the topic. Group investigation is designed for all students' abilities and experience relevant to the process of learning, not just to the cognitive and social domains.

Discovery instruction an approach to instruction where students interact with their environment-by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.  http://www.nzpf.ac.nz/resources/magazine/2005/june/Discovery%20Time.htm

Common learning goals are concrete, reasonable outcomes that can be easily measured that states what you want all students to take away from the class.  This includes course content, skill attainment, thinking and problem solving skills.


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (High School)

Image of Key     Key Questions: 

Indicator:   High School Literacy

Component: Writing Embedded in the Content Area

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Teachers directly teach the components of the writing process and guide students in bringing their writing to a final product.
  • Instruction emphasizes forms and conventions of written English and includes writing in various forms and for different purposes.
  • Teachers model application of writing strategies in various genre and disciplines.
  • Teachers provide students with appropriate feedback  (i.e., immediate, extended, specific, and corrective).
  • Teachers assign writing tasks that incorporate critical thinking about content area knowledge.
  • Various forms of assessment (formative and summative).
  • Pre-, during-, & post-writing tasks
  • Use of technology to support student writing
  • Varied writing assignments
    • Responsive writing
    • Independent writing activities
    • Writing in conjunction with reading
    • Written summaries
    • Note taking structures (2 column notes, Cornell notes…)
  • Student responses reflect critical thinking

 

Purposes for writing are to inform or teach someone about something. Authors sometimes write things to entertain people. Still another reason is to persuade or convince their audience to do or not do something. Examples can be found www.learningtowrite.ecsd.net/purposes%20of%20writing.htmexternal link


Forms and conventionsexternal link
  include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing. The writer should use proper form and conventions to enhance readability. 

Writing process Breaking writing down into several steps; brainstorming, free writing, researching, creating abstracts with thesis statements, rough drafts, peer reviews, and a finished product. Writing supports available at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/external link

Appropriate feedback Quality, appropriateness, and timing are important factors to consider when providing feedback. It needs to be specific rather than general, descriptive rather than judgmental/evaluative, directed toward remediable behavior, and designed to elicit an appropriate response.

Technology to support writing tasks include tools for word processing and multimedia software, to organize information, for physical and sensory access, for creating text, for reviewing text.  References can be accessed at http://www.cited.org/index.aspx?page_id=108external link

Responsive writing organizes thoughts, explores what the writer thinks, and generates ideas.  It is a process of writing down ideas, then sentences and finally organizing them into a paragraph or a report. For responsive prompts see http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/Word_Docs/DEPS/Career/business/responsive_writing.docexternal link



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Adolescent Literacy (High School)

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   High School Literacy

Component:  Extended Learning Opportunity(ELO)

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • The school schedule and resources are available to allow extra time for literacy activities.
  • Technology is used as instructional reinforcement and opportunities for guided practice in specific deficit areas and for enhancement of content.
  • Extended learning opportunities are directly linked to general education program/content/instruction.
  • Individualized (e.g., intensive supplemental or accelerated) instruction is provided.
  • Diverse texts are available for all students.
  • Varied and flexible scheduling (e.g., lengthening classes, second time and extended time in schedule, block scheduling) Extended time for interventions
  • Use of technology (e.g., electronic and visual media, Internet, instructional software, distance learning, videography
  •  Small group and individual intervention (e.g., direct instruction in reading, targeted, individualized instruction for struggling students, Strategic tutoring )

 

 


Integrated technology includes strategies, procedures, and ideas to plan and implement technology programs that will help students be successful. 

High schools can enrich and expand virtually every activity, operation, and course by using computers and other technologies in teaching, learning and assessment.  examplesexternal link Researchexternal link

Expanded opportunities include after school, summer learning, and other out-of-school time programs, as well as extended day and year initiatives.
High quality ELOs activities are designed to promote learning and positive development beyond the
traditional school day. Additional information http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.1f41d49be2d3d33eacdcbeeb501010a0/
?vgnextoid=35b48cc156de1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD
external link

Strategic tutoring Strategic tutoring teaches students strategies for learning and performing while receiving help with class assignments.
There are four instructional stages: assessing students' strategies and constructing, teaching, and transferring strategies for
independent applications. A manual on this is available at
http://www.waybetterunitedway.org/documents/SofH_TRAIN_MANUAL.pdfexternal link


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Specially Designed Intensive Reading


Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Component:  Explicit and Comprehensive

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

 

Direct instruction refers to an explicit, scientifically-based model of effective instruction with a focus on curriculum design and effective instructional delivery.  You may also see the term DI (Direct Instruction) used in similar contexts and while some features are the same DI refers to specific program components developed by Siegfried Engelmann.  A source is: http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/inclusion/teaching/marchand%20martella%20ausdemore.htmexternal link

Diagnostic teaching is a process for assessing student need and creating focused learning activities to address those needs.  A source is: http://www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v14n03/2.htmlexternal link

Literacy centers are a self-motivational way to enhance, develop, or extend learning within a classroom. Students work alone or interact with one another using instructional materials to explore and expand their learning (Diller, 2003). (Also referred to as Literacy Work Stations) A source is: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/learning-center/48549.html external link

Mastery learning is an instructional process that provides students with multiple opportunities to demonstrate content mastery. Initial instruction is presented at a fast pace to engage all learners. Then a test, or formative assessment, is administered to everyone. Students who demonstrate mastery on this test are given challenging assignments to extend and deepen their content knowledge.

Students who do not demonstrate mastery are given additional instruction specifically designed to correct their misunderstandings. A source is:
http://home.att.net/~TEACHING/misc/masteryover.pdf external link



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Component:  Assessment and Benchmarking

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

 

Curriculum-Based measures, assessments, and/or evaluations are best defined by Deno (1987) as "any set of measurement procedures that use direct observation and recording of a student’s performance in a local curriculum as a basis for gathering information to make instructional decisions" (in Shinn, 1989; p. 62).  A source is: http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_curriculumbe.htmlexternal link

Diagnostic assessment includes basic measures of reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics using tests endorsed by the school or school district. The assessment results provide important insights into the student's current skills in math, reading, and writing.  Based on student needs specific subject areas should be assessed. A source: http://www.fcrr.org/assessment/PDFfiles/DiagnosticTools.pdfexternal linkhttp://www.readingsuccesslab.com/Glossary/DiagnosticAssessment.htmlexternal link

Error analysis is used during as well as between instructional sessions to give corrective feedback to students as well as to determine if a pattern exists and should be addressed in the instructional intervention.

Gap analysis refers to comparing the student's current performance against expected performance.  The intervention plan is then designed to "close" the gap between current performance and expected performance.

Language competency refers to the ability to communicate effectively, and convey information in a manner that is easily understood by diverse audiences.  The definition is evolving and research in the area has been generally oriented towards English Language Learners. A source is: http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/documents/Definition%20of%20Linguistic%20Competence.pdfexternal link



QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Component:  Intensive Programming

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Additional time is given beyond core instruction, to address individual skill deficits.
  • Researched interventions are targeted to individual diagnostic assessment results.
  • All reading programming is delivered by trained, highly qualified, professional staff.
  • Groupingsexternal link are based on similarity of skill needs.

(Research suggests that at the primary grades at least 90 minutes of reading at the child’s appropriate instructional level with additional intensive targeted instruction should be the goal)

  • Collaborationexternal link of general  education and special education teachers, reading specialists, ESL teachers (when appropriate) with sufficient co-planning timeexternal link
  • Alternative or differentiated core programs

 


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Image of Key    Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Component:  School Wide Supports

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • General educators maintain responsibilities for and are fully knowledgeable of all students.
  • General educators use a variety of interventions that targetexternal link specific student needs.
  • Interventions are research-based and implemented with fidelity by highly-qualified staffexternal link.
  • A collaborative process is used to design or select  interventions for at-risk students.
  • All teachers and support staff are involved in ongoing professional development.
  • Student data drives decision-making external link.

 

Instructional Support Teams (IST) are defined as interdisciplinary problem solving teams that assist in the determination of intervention plans for students.  Sources are:
http://www.childadvocate.net/instructional_support.htmexternal link and
http://www.interventioncentral.com/external link

Metacognition literally means "big thinking." You are thinking about thinking.  Questioning, visualizing, and synthesizing information are all ways that readers can examine their thinking process.

Self regulation is the ability to assess affective, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics, strengths, and needs and apply strategies to make meaning.  A source:
http://www.ldonline.org/article/6207external link


 

QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Image of Key    Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Specially Designed Intensive Reading

Component:  Motivation and Engagement

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Frequent feedback (early and positive)
  • Differentiated instruction (to ensure student success),
  • Personalized instruction
  • Open and honest atmosphere
  • Goal setting
  • Specific positive reinforcement
  • Student choiceexternal link
  • Incentivesexternal link
  • Family involvement (surveysexternal link, home-school communicationexternal link, etc.)

 

Incentives:  Some additional resources concerning incentives can be found at
http://www.sandi.net/staff/principals/resources/test_strategies.pdf external link and  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/15/73/f9.pdfexternal link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Systemic Support

Image of Key Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Systemic Support

Component:  Leadership

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • There are district-wide and building specific literacy goals
  • Ongoing assessments of need are used to allocate resources for scheduling, staffing, and budgeting to support the literacy program
  • Defined and implemented procedures for follow-up and support for implementation of new initiatives or programs and maintenance of established programs are followed
  • Leaders promote a positive atmosphere conducive to change
  • Administrators understand and  support programs for struggling learners
  • A comprehensive coordinated literacy program exists
  • Programs, policies, and practices aligned with goals
  • Teacher leaders
  • Needs assessments and analysis of results
  • Leader walk throughs
  • Mentoring
  • Peer coaching
  • Acknowledgement of success
  • Regularly scheduled collaboration between general and special educators
  • Safe and orderly school environment

 

Coherence as defined by Webster means "having the quality of holding together as a firm mass" and "logically consistent".  A reference to educational coherence can be found at: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/f9/a9.pdf

Leader Walk Throughs is a brief, structured, non-evaluative classroom observation by the principal that is followed by a conversation between the principal and the teacher about what was observed A source for information: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/28/fe/ab.pdf external link

Mentoring is defined as the establishment of a personal relationship for the purpose of professional instruction and guidance.  A source of information: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-924/mentoring.htmexternal link

Peer Coaching is defined as a confidential process through which teachers share their expertise and provide one another with feedback, support, and assistance for the purpose of refining present skills, learning new skills, and/or solving classroom-related problems (Dalton and Moir, 1991). A source of information: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/directions/03.htmexternal link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Systemic Support

     Image of KeyKey Questions: 

Indicator:   Systemic Support

Component:  Professional Development

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Professional development is outcome focused, ongoing and results driven.
  • Opportunities for professional development are differentiated and built into the regular school schedule.
  • Professional development opportunities are varied and differentiated.
  • Participation is expected of every member of the school community including administration.
  • Professional development is provided for newly hired staff including continued skill development and follow-up.
  • Job embedded technical assistance is a critical element of PD.
  • Teacher professional learning communities
  • Planned schedule of professional development
  • Variety of stakeholders attending professional development
  • Effective evaluation of professional development activities
  • Variety of models in use including mentoring, peer coaching, modeling/demonstration lessons,
  • Study groups
  • Link between out of school learning to classroom learning

 

Demonstration Lessons aim to help teachers actually see what it looks like to teach in particular ways.  They may focus on how the teacher identifies and addresses students’ prior conceptions or on the questions a teacher asks of students as they explain how they solved a mathematics or science problem.

Differentiated instruction is defined as a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process. A source is: http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.htmlexternal link

Professional Learning Community is defined as a collegial group of administrators and school staff who are united in their commitment to student learning. They share a vision, work and learn collaboratively, visit and review other classrooms, and participate in decision making (Hord, 1997b).   A source for this is: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/currclum/cu3lk22.htm external link

Study Group is defined as consisting of no more than six individuals who can work effectively to plan common or connected instructional units, propose school-improvement measures, and research new instructional and learning techniques.  A source is: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/profdevl/pd2study.htmexternal link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Systemic Support

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Systemic Support

Component:  Summative Assessment of Student Programs

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Data from formative and summative assessments are used to track student progress and plan consistent integrated interventions over time.
  • Data are presented in visual displays of data to support evaluation of student learning trajectories.
  • Disaggregated data are used for internal and external evaluation of the implemented literacy program.
  • Data are used to explore both the effectiveness of the instructional model and the implementation model, and adjustments made as indicated.
  • Individual student profiles
  • Evidence of data analysis for problem solving by classroom teachers, Instructional Support Teams (IST) and CSE teams
  • Data from assessments and its implications included in professional development plan,
  • Visually presented student learning trajectories

 

Disaggregated data simply means looking at test scores by specific subgroups of students.   A source is: http://www.schoolboarddata.org/chapter_three/disaggregated_data.pdf external link

Formative Assessment is often done at the beginning or during a program, thus providing the opportunity for immediate evidence for student learning in a particular course or at a particular point in a program. A source: http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspxexternal link

Instructional Support Teams (IST) are defined as interdisciplinary problem solving teams that assist in the determination of intervention plans for students.  Sources are: http://www.childadvocate.net/instructional_support.htmexternal link   and http://www.interventioncentral.com/external link

Learning trajectories are defined as a path, progression, or line of development of student learning.

Summative assessment is comprehensive in nature, provides accountability and is used to check the level of learning at the end of the program.  A source is: http://www.nmsa.org/Publications/WebExclusive/Assessment/tabid/1120/Default.aspxexternal link

Visual displays of data are vital representations of student progress over time.  Charts and graphs kept on an ongoing basis can assist in determining the effectiveness of instruction and intervention.  A source for charting tools: http://www.interventioncentral.com/external link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Systemic Support

Image of Key  Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Systemic Support

Component:  Communication

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • Referrals and resulting intervention plans for Instructional Support Intervention Teams are shared with all and are simply formatted, clearly communicated, and consistently applied.
  • The CSE referral form thoroughly describes
    pre-referral interventions used, including the suspected reason for lack of success, length/frequency/duration of interventions reasonably expected to address hypothesis, modifications or adjustments made  to increase success or reasons why no attempts were made.
  • Board and school policies and practices for addressing lack of student success are communicated to new and existing staff on an annual basis and made available to parents upon request.
  • Co-teaching teams and team planning time in school schedule with special education teachers included in team meetings
  • Published meeting calendar
  • Referral forms clearly designed, centrally located, and accessible
  • Supportive alliance with parents and community
  • Parental involvement encouraged
  • Effective use of technology to communicate with all stakeholders
  • Parent nights to share Literacy initiatives and student work
  • Acknowledgement of success

 

Co-teaching team is defined as a general education and special education teacher that work together to teach a heterogeneous group of students some of whom have disabilities.  A source is: http://www.powerof2.org/external link

CSE Referral refers to a written statement asking that the school district evaluate a child to determine if he or she needs special education services.  A source is: http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/policy/parentguide.htmexternal link

Intervention plans should clearly identify procedures and instructional strategies to be used for students that have been referred to a problem solving team at a school.  Arrangements such as where and when the plan will be implemented and the materials needed to carry out the plan should be delineated. Persons responsible for all aspects of the plan are identified.
It is essential that this plan is written and available to all individuals involved in the implementation of the plan. A source is: http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/ec/development/learning/intervention/rtimaterials/descriptipsml1.pdfexternal link


QUALITY INDICATOR REVIEW AND RESOURCE GUIDE
LITERACY:  Systemic Support

Image of Key   Key Questions: 

Indicator:   Systemic Support

Component:  Universal Design for Learning

Quality Indicators

Look For

Comments/Evidence

There is evidence that:

  • A variety materials and/or media technology is used as both an instructional tool and an instructional topic.
  • Instruction is designed with the needs of all students in mind, so that methods, materials, and assessments are usable.
  • Technology is used as instructional reinforcement and to provide opportunities for guided practice in specific deficit areas.
  • Assistive Technology and supplemental tech programs matched to student need
  • A variety of materials, media including computer based materials, visual representations are being used
  • Presentations and student response use a variety of media, manipulatives
  • Intentional differentiation of, methods or student activities such as information presentation methods, learning context, instructional formats, project or presentation formats

 

Assistive Technology commonly refers to "...products, devices or equipment, whether acquired commercially, modified or customized, that are used to maintain, increase or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities...", according to the definition proposed in the Assistive Technology Act of 1998.  A source is: http://www.rehabtool.com/forum/discussions/1.htmlexternal link

Universal Design for Learning is defined by CAST as: UDL provides a blueprint for creating flexible goals, methods, materials, and assessments that accommodate learner differences.” Universal" does not imply a single optimal solution for everyone. Instead, it is meant to underscore the need for multiple approaches to meet the needs of diverse learners. UDL mirrors the universal design movement in architecture and product development. Think of speakerphones, curb cuts, and close-captioned television—all universally designed to accommodate a wide variety of users, including those with disabilities. Embedded features that help those with disabilities eventually benefit everyone. UDL uses technology's power and flexibility to make education more inclusive and effective for all. A source is: http://www.cast.org/research/udl/index.htmlexternal link