Student Support Services

Principles of Effectiveness

The Principles of Effectiveness provide a framework in which to plan, design and implement strategies to address change in a targeted population. School districts are required to adhere to the Principles of Effectiveness when applying for Title IV 21st Century Community Learning Center funding. The following Principles of Effectiveness shall govern the recipient’s use of Title IV, Part B funding:

Needs Assessment: The program shall be based upon an assessment of objective data regarding the need for before and after school programs (including during summer recess periods) and activities in the schools and communities.

Performance Measures: The program will be based upon an established set of performance measures aimed at ensuring the availability of high quality academic enrichment opportunities.

  • Measurable means that it is able to be counted and is quantifiable.
  • Use the Who, What and When method. Who will demonstrate the desired behavior? What will the target population do? When will the behavior occur?

Scientifically-Based Research: If appropriate, the program shall be based upon scientifically-based research that provides evidence that the program or activity will help students meet the State and local student academic achievement standards.

  • Program is based on theory accepted by experts in the field.
  • Theory provides logical explanation of why it should work.
  • Program produced the desired changes in the target population.
  • Research has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective and scientific review.

Evaluation: The program or activity shall undergo a periodic evaluation to assess its progress toward achieving its goal of providing high quality opportunities for academic enrichment.

  • Determine that the program is sound, operating as planned and achieving desired effect.
  • Formative evaluation assesses the immediate or short-term outcomes of the program, appropriateness of content, methods, materials, media and instruments.
  • Process evaluation identifies the barriers and supports, allowing for strategy development to optimize progress.
  • Summative evaluation determines the impact or outcome of the program implementation.
  • The results of such evaluation shall be used to refine, improve, and strengthen the program or activity, and to refine the performance measures; and be made available to the public upon request, with public notice provided of its availability.
Last Updated: January 13, 2010