EdTech

Educational Design and Technology

Glossary

Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)--An AUP, in a school setting, is a written agreement, signed by students, their parents, and teachers, outlining the terms and conditions of Internet use. It specifically sets out acceptable uses, rules of on-line behavior, and access privileges. Also covered are penalties for violations of the policy, including security violations and vandalism of the system. Anyone using a school's Internet connection is usually required to sign an AUP.

(iSafe, Acceptable Use Policies, http://www.isafe.org/imgs/pdf/education/AUPs.pdf external linkPDF(58 KB).

Acceptable Use Policy template for schools can be found at http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/rules/acceptableUsePolicy.htm external link)

Access – Access to the school library media program and resources is defined in three ways. Physical access refers to the ability of all users to easily make use of the library media center facilities and resources. Intellectual access insures that all users will find materials on their reading, interest, and comprehension levels. Economic access refers to the removal of all barriers to library materials and services based on the user’s ability to pay. (American Library Association (ALA)/Association of American School Librarians (AASL) Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Accommodation - Adaptations in assessment tools and standards to permit children with disabilities or English language learners to show what they know and can do. Adjustments may be made, for example, in the way a test is administered or presented, in the timing, in the language, or in how the child responds. The nature of the adjustment determines whether or not what is being measured or the comparability of scores is affected (Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO)).

Advocacy – The coordinated and comprehensive process by which support for the library media program is created within the greater community. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Assessment - A systematic procedure for obtaining information from observation, interviews, portfolios, projects, tests, and other sources that can be used to make judgments about characteristics of children or programs (Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) - www.ccsso.orgexternal link))

Challenged materials – Books and other resources that are identified by concerned citizen(s) with an expressed desire to remove them from the library collection. . (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Collaboration – In a collaborative instructional information skills unit, the school library media specialist works closely with other teachers in the school to co-plan, co-teach, and co-assess information skills. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Collection development – The systematic process of gathering input on user needs, identifying materials to meet those needs, and acquiring those materials for the library collection. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Confidentiality – the legal expectation by patrons that their reading, viewing, and listening of library resources is not revealed to others without their permission. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Cooperative Collection Development – Two or more libraries, possibly of different types (such as public, academic, school, or special) working together to jointly acquire materials. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Curriculum-- A plan of instruction that details what students are to know, how they are to learn it, what the teacher's role is, and the context in which learning and teaching will take place.

(North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Glossary of Education Terms and Acronyms, 2002 http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/misc/glossary.htmexternal link ).

              In New York State, the Regents develop learning standards and districts or regions develop curriculum.  A number of districts or regions have developed an Information Literacy curriculum. A district without an Information Literacy Curriculum could use one or more of the curricula developed in New York or develop their own local curriculum.

Some New York State Information Literacy/Fluency curricula are:

Developmental Assessment – An ongoing process of observing a child's current competencies (including knowledge, skills, dispositions and attitudes) and using the information to help the child develop further in the context of family and care-giving and learning environments (CCSSO).

Diversity – The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) definition of diversity is “differences among groups of people and individuals based upon ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, gender, exceptionalities, language, religion, sexual orientation, and geographic area.” A diverse library program extends that concept to apply to the library collection, to issues of access to the library media center, and to design and delivery of information skills instruction. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Evaluation - The measurement, comparison, and judgment of the value, quality or worth of children's work and/or of their schools, teachers, or a specific educational program based upon valid evidence gathered through assessment (CCSSO).

Fixed scheduling – A method of assigning each class in the school a set time to use the library each week. This is usually done to provide the classroom teacher with a planning period. This method prevents the school library media specialist and the classroom teacher from collaboration, especially in larger schools. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Flexible Access – The opposite of fixed scheduling, the school library media program is not used as a method of providing the teacher’s planning period. Classes are scheduled as a result of instructional needs. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Format – Refers to the variety of ways in which information is packaged. Common formats are books, video-tapes, electronic, audio recordings, etc. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information Ethics – Use of information in accordance with both legal and moral precepts. The library patron’s right to privacy, to full access of information, and the right to expect that other patrons will respect ownership of information is included. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information Literacy – The ability to locate and use information in all formats. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information Power – The national guidelines for school library media programs first published by American Association of School Librarians (AASL) in conjunction with the Association for Educational Communications and Technology in 1986, and revised in 1998. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information retrieval – Usually electronic, information retrieval refers to the process of identifying, locating, and accessing the full text of information, in all formats, and wherever located. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information specialist – Person with professional training in the organization, storage, and retrieval of information. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Information Technology – Commonly used to refer to the computer and other technology used to store or retrieve information. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Inquiry learning - Inquiry is the process of formulating questions, organizing ideas, exploring and evaluating information, analyzing and synthesizing data, and communicating findings and conclusions. It's the type of activity that children and adults are asked to do every day. Unfortunately, not everyone is well-prepared to deal with the demands of a fast-paced, technology-rich world containing endless opportunities, choices, perspectives, and conflicts.

Student information scientists of all ages can participate in inquiry-based experiences. (The Blue Book on Information Age Inquiry, Instruction, and Literacy. Callison, Daniel and Preddy, Leslie (2006)).

              In formal schooling the concept of inquiry has been part of the science curriculum as scientific inquiry. The social sciences have also used the idea of inquiry in relation to disciplines such as history (historical inquiry) and sociology. Archeologists have long pursued a form of inquiry in their study of ancient worlds. Today inquiry has begun to permeate all areas of the curriculum. Teachers are using the idea of inquiry to foster student-centered learning and critical thinking (Pathways to Knowledge and Inquiry Learning, Papas, Marjorie L., and Tepe, Anne E.)

Instructional Partner – The concept of the school library media specialist as an active participant in the instructional life of the school, and in the education of each student. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Integrated information skills curriculum – The alignment of the identified information skills curriculum with subject area curricula.

Intellectual freedom – The right of each patron to access information and ideas according to their needs or interests. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Life-long reading – The creation of a strong desire to read that continues throughout the student’s life. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Location and access – Limiting information skills instruction to the identification of materials and their placement in the library. Does not typically include instruction in the comprehension, use, or syntheses of the information. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Mission – The mission of the school library media program in the school is to “ensure that students and staff are effective users of ideas and information.” This mission was first developed for the 1986 edition of Information Power, the national guidelines for school library media programs, and has remained the mission. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) - An online bibliography of a library collection that is available to the public, replacing card catalogs. OPACs developed as stand-alone online catalogs. With the arrival of the Internet, most libraries have made their OPAC accessible from a server to users all over the world. Disparate OPCS can be joined into a single "union" OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci213639,00.html external link).

Open access – Users are welcome in the library media center before, during, and after the school day, without barriers. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Organization of Information – Term used to refer to the standard protocols by which information is arranged. Other terms that are sometimes used are cataloging and classification, technical services, etc. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Outcome-based learning – Identifying what students will know and be able to do at the end of an educational process. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)  

Performance-based (Alternative, Authentic,) Assessment – Any assessment strategy designed to estimate a child's knowledge, understanding, ability, skill and/or attitudes in a consistent fashion across individuals emphasizing methods other than standardized achievement tests, particularly those using multiple choice formats. Performance-based assessments typically include exhibitions, investigations, demonstrations, written or oral responses, journals, and portfolios.

Portfolio Assessment - A collection of work, usually drawn from children's classroom work, which, when subjected to objective analysis, become an assessment tool. This occurs when (1) the assessment purpose is defined; (2) criteria or methods are made clear for determining what is put into the portfolio, by whom, and when; and (3) criteria for assessing either the collection or individual pieces of work are identified and used to make judgments about children's learning (CCSSO).

Privacy – The legal expectation by patrons that their reading, viewing, and listening of library resources is not revealed to others without their permission. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Program administration – The role of the school library media specialist centering on the management of the school library media facility and services. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Reading habit – The creation of a strong desire to read that continues throughout the student’s life. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Resource-based learning – Using materials in a variety of formats to teach, illustrate, or support the curriculum concepts. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Rubric - a set of rules, guidelines, or benchmarks at different levels of performance, or prescribed descriptors for use in quantifying measures of program attributes and performance (adapted from Western Michigan University Evaluation Center).

  • Rubrics promote learning by giving clear performance targets based upon agreed-upon learning goals.
  • Rubrics are used to make subjective judgments about work or status more objective through clearly articulated criteria for performance.
  • Rubrics can be used to understand next steps in learning or how to improve programs (adapted from CCSSO).

School Climate-- A general term that refers to the feel, atmosphere, tone, ideology, or milieu of a school. Just as individuals have personalities, so too do schools; a school climate may be thought of as the personality of a school. The feelings and attitudes that are elicited by a school’s environment are referred to as school climate.  Most researchers agree that it is a multidimensional construct that includes physical, social, and academic dimensions. 

(Wayne K. Hoy, School Climate - Measuring School Climate, School Climate and Outcomes, Issues Trends and Controversies, http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2392/School-Climate.html external link).

School library media center – Usually refers to a room in the school that houses the school library media facility. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

School library media program – The integration of services coordinated by the school library media specialist including but not limited to those within the school library media center. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

School library media specialist – The professional licensed school library media teacher with specialized training and education in the school library media profession. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Selection policy – Formal statement guiding the identification of materials to be included in the school library media collection, and the school collection of instructional resources. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Selection tools – Established books, review journals, and other aids that are recognized by the library field as valid and reliable sources of information to assist the school library media specialist in the identification of resources. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Standards-based Assessment – A process through which the criteria for assessment are derived directly from content and/or performance standards (CCSSO).

Technical services – The assorted skills associated with preparing information resources for use by patrons, including cataloging and classification, database management, and other skills. (ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Programs for School Library Media Specialist Preparation)

Web Site Evaluation—critically evaluating the information found on Internet Web sites. Some guides to Web site evaluation can be found at:

 

Weeding-- The practice of discarding excess copies, rarely used books, books in poor condition or those materials with incorrect or outdated information, or those no longer relevant to the curriculum or needs of students (Guidelines for Weeding Library Materials, http://www.sbac.edu/~media/guid_weeding.htmlexternal link ).

Weeded Collection—A collection in which weeding has taken place.

 

Last Updated: September 8, 2010