Educational Design and Technology

Instructional Design

Teacher and students outside school building

Students acquire, evaluate, and use information effectively through instructional strategies designed to meet learner needs



  • Instruction: a planned process for conveying knowledge to learners and facilitating learning.
  • Instructional Analysis: a procedure applied to an instructional goal, to identify the primary and secondary skills that are required for students to achieve the goal.
  • Instructional Context: the physical and psychological environment in which instruction is delivered or in which knowledge transfer occurs.
  • Instructional Design: systematic instructional needs assessment, development, evaluation, implementation, and maintenance of materials and programs.
  • Instructional Design Theory: a collection of scientific doctrines relating to learner characteristics, instructional methods, learning environments and outcomes.
  • Instructional Designer: an individual who develops the methodology and delivery systems for presenting course content.
  • Instructional Goal: a generic statement of learner outcomes, related to an identified problem and a needs assessment that can be achieved through instruction.
  • Instructional Objective: a detailed explanation of what students should be able to do at the end of instruction.
  • Instructional Products: content-related objects, such as books, job aids, student and instructor guides, and web pages.
  • Instructional Strategy: a general approach to selecting and sequencing learning activities.
  • Instructional Systems Design: an organized process for developing a curriculum or instructional materials program.

[Definitions from the SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary, http://www.syberworks.com/glossary/i/i1.htmexternal link ]

Additional Reading

Coatney, Sharon.  Am I Doing the Right Job? Teacher Librarian 34.3 (2007): 60-60. 

Like the blind man and the elephant, people on the team saw the job as all technology, all information literacy, all program administration, all literacy instruction, or as the partner in providing the school's total curriculum.

Danielson, Charlotte. The Handbook for Enhancing Professional Practice: Using the Framework for Teaching in your School. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA, 2008

Danielson, Charlotte; Axtell, Darlene; Bevan, Paula; Cleland, Bernadette; McKay, Candi; Phillips, Elaine; Wright, Karyn. Implementing the Framework for Teaching in Enhancing Professional Practice: An ASCD Action Tool. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Design (ASCD), Alexandria, VA, 2009.

Dickinson, Gail K.  How One Child Learns: the Teacher-Librarian as Evidence-Based Practitioner.Teacher Librarian 33.1 (2005): 16-20. 

Dickinson observes that evidence-based practice is one way that teacher-librarians can improve the school library program and their own performance, while at same time making a difference in the lives of students. She finds further that evidence-based practice is a way to take the "I wonder" moments and to provide a structured way to track changes within the school library program, and that the changes that improve learning for this one child will change both teacher and learner and provide a sound foundation for the place of the school library program in school wide instruction.

Kuhlthau, Carol C., Maniotes, Leslie K., and Caspari, Ann K.
Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century
Libraries Unlimited, 2007.

Loertscher, David.  What Flavor is Your School Library? The Teacher-Librarian as Learning Leader. Teacher Librarian 34.2 (2006): 8-13. 

Loertscher examines the role of teacher-librarians as learning leaders by discussing five flavors of library programs, including organization, learning, reading, technology, and information literacy. He argues that the learning program is the best option because it is headed by a learning leader known throughout the school as a learning expert in the information- and technology-rich world. As a result, teachers realize that every time they create and teach collaborative learning units with a teacher-librarian, a higher percentage of learners succeed.

Marzano, Robert J., Pickering, Debra, and Pollock, Jane E. Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. January 2001.

How to bring research findings into the classroom and find the time to research the research. Authors examine decades of research findings to distill results into nine categories of teaching strategies that have positive effects on student learning.

Neuman, D. I-LEARN: A Model for Creating Knowledge in the Information Age. International Association of School Librarianship. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference (2008): 1-10. 
The I-LEARN Model-Identify, Locate, Evaluate, Apply, Reflect, Know- describes the process of learning with information and provides a learning sequence that children and youth can be taught. Grounded in research and theory from information science and instructional systems design, it is also based on the author's own research and writing. This theoretical model reflects an inquiry approach to learning and builds on the three-part information-literacy paradigm that underlies many instructional activities conducted in library media centers: accessing, evaluating, and using information. It expands that paradigm to focus specifically on the use of information as a tool for learning.

Web Resources

Alliance for Excellent Education: Teaching for a New World: Preparing High School Educators to Deliver College- and Career-Ready Instruction

Key Elements of What Secondary Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do

http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/TeachingForANewWorld.pdf external link PDF file icon (628 KB)

Council of Chief State School Officers

Transforming Education: Delivering on Our Promise to Every Child external link PDF file icon (274 KB)

A discussion document that highlights the rationale behind and thinking on each of the CCSSO strategic initiative areas.

Enhancing Professional Practice - A Framework for Teaching

Danielson, Charlotte, 1996, Updated 2013.

Provides frameworks for the complex activity of teaching, divided into 22 components clustered into four domains of teaching responsibility.


Massachusetts School Library Media Program Standards for 21ST Century Learning
http://www.maschoolibraries.org/dmdocuments/standardsrev.pdf external link PDF (337 KB)

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) – an independent, nonprofit, nonpartisan, nongovernmental organization formed in 1987 to advance the quality of teaching and learning by developing professional standards for accomplished teaching.

Standard II: Knowledge of Teaching and Learning
“Accomplished library media specialists know the principles of teaching and

learning that contribute to an active learning environment.”
http://www.nbpts.org/sites/default/files/documents/certificates/nbpts-certificate-cya-lm-standards.pdfexternal link PDF file icon (690 KB)

Study of Instructional Improvement

Efforts at comprehensive school reform to address the problem of instructional improvement more broadly, to improve the instructional capacity of entire schools, and to do so in ways that involved systematically changing many different (and interconnected) elements of instruction and instructional capacity in schools and classrooms.

http://www.sii.soe.umich.edu/ external link

[Photo credit: New York Library Association]

Last Updated: January 27, 2015