Special Education

Minimum Requirements of a Response to Intervention Program (RtI)

Appendix C

Readings and References

Artiles, A.J. & Ortiz, A.A. (Eds.). (2002)  English language learners with special education needs: Identification, assessment, and instruction.  McHenry, IL:  Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems.

Artiles. A.J. (September, 2007).  Challenges to Response to Intervention (RtI) Modesto, CA:  Equity and Cultural Considerations.  www.nccrest.org.

Baca, L. (2007, May).  Practitioner’s guide:  Reducing biased decision making when implementing RtI with ELLs.  Handout at Lecture presented to a Bilingual Special Education Teacher Training Seminar at Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY.

Boyd-Batstone, P. (2006).  Differentiated early literacy for English language learners:  Practical strategies.  Boston, MA:  Pearson.

Booth Johnston, E., Derickson Weinrich, B., & Randolph Johnson, A. (1984).  A sourcebook of pragmatic activities.  Tucson, AZ:  Communication Skill Builders.

Calderon, M. (2007).  Teaching reading to English language learners.  Thousand  Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.

Cappellini, M. (2005).  Balancing reading and language learning.  Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Christ, T.J., Burns, M.K., & Ysseldyke, J. (2005).  Conceptual confusions within Response-to-Intervention vernacular:  Clarifying meaningful differences. NASP Communique, 34(3), p. 1-7.

Christie, J., Enz, B., & Vukelich, C. (2003).  Teaching language and literacy.  Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.

Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2009).  Literacy instruction for English language learners:  A teacher’s guide to research-based practices.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

CREDE. Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence.  http://crede.berkely.edu.

Davies Samway, K., & Taylor, D. (2007).  Teaching English language learners: Strategies that work.  New York:  Scholastic.

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS).  http://dibels.uoregon.edu (October 22, 2007).

Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2008).  Making content comprehensible for English learners:  The SIOP model.  Boston, MA:  Pearson.

Esparza Brown, J., Doolittle, J. A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention for English Language Learners. (2008)  National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCREST)

Fixsen, D., Naoom, S., Blasé, K., Friedman, R., & Wallace, F., National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) Department of Child & Family Studies, Louis De La Porta Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida. (2007). Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literatures.

Fuchs, L., & Fuchs, D. Treatment Validity:  A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. (1998).  LD Research & Practice, Vol. 13, #4.

Garcia, S. & Ortiz, A. A. (2008). A framework for culturally and linguistically responsive response-to-intervention models. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 11(1), 24-41.

Gottlieb, M. (2006).  Assessing English language learners.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

González, N., Moll, L. C., Floyd-Tenery, M., Rivera, A., Rendón, P., Gonzales, R., & Amanti, C. (February 1994). Funds of knowledge: Learning from language minority households. Digest no. EDO-FL-94-08. National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. Retrieved on March 9, 2010 from http://www.cal.org/resources/Digest/ncrcds01.html.

Gregory, G. H. & Chapman, C. (2007). Differentiated instructional strategies (2nd edition).  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin.

Gutierrez, R. (2002) Beyond essentialism:  The complexity of language in teaching mathematics to Latina/o students.  American Educational Research Journal, 39, 4, 1047-88.

Hoover, J. J., Klinger, J.  K., Baca, L. M. & Patton, J. M. (2008).  Methods for teaching culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional learners.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson.

Jenkins, J., & Johnson, E. (2008).  Universal screening for reading problems:  Why and how should we do this? Retrieved from: http://www.rtinetwork.org/Essential/Assessment/Universal/ar/ReadingProblems

Jesness, J.  (2004). Teaching English language learners – K-12: A quick-start guide for the new teacher.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin Press.

Johnson, E. & Mellard, D.F., National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD). (2006, April).  Getting Started with SLD Determination:  After IDEA Reauthorization.

Johnson, E., Mellard, D.F., Fuchs, D. & McKnight, M. A. (2006, August).  Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI): How to do it, National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD)

Kemp, K. & Partyka.  (June, 2009).  RtI and math:  The classroom connection.  Lecture presented at Response to Intervention and Reading First Conference, Albany, NY.

Klingner, J. K. (2009).  Considerations When Using RtI Models with Culturally Diverse Students. National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems. www.nccrest.org.

Klingner, J. K. (Dec, 2007).  Using RtI to address disproportionate representation. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from www.nccrest.org

Klingner, J. K. Artiles, A.J., & Mendez Barletta, L. (2006).  English language learners who struggle with reading: Language acquisition or learning disabilities?  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 108-128.

Klingner, J. K., & Edwards, P. A. (2006, Jan-March).  New Direction in Research. Cultural Consideration with Response to Intervention Models.  Reading, Research Quarterly.

Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J.J., & Baca, L.M. (Eds.). (2008).  Why do English language learners struggle with reading?  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Corwin.

Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007).  Teaching reading comprehension to students with learning difficulties.  NY:  Guilford.

Kuder, S.J. & Hasit, C.  (2002).  Enhancing literacy for all students. Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson.

Linan-Thompson, S. & Ortiz, A. Response to Intervention and English Language Learners:  Instructional and Assessment Considerations.  Seminars in Speech and Language/Volume 30, Number 2. 2009.

Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. T.  The Response to Intervention of ELL at Risk for Reading Problem – 2004 Presentation at NCCREST National Research Conference.

Mahoney, K., MacSwan, J., Haladyna, T., & Garcia, D. (2010). Castañeda’s third prong: Evaluating the achievement of Arizona’s English learners under restrictive language policy. In P. Gandara and M. Hopkins (Eds.) Forbidden Language. Teachers College: Columbia University.

Mellard, D.F., Johnson, E. (2008) RTI A Practitioner’s Guide to Implementing Response to Intervention. A Joint Publication – Corwin Press and NAESP.

New Mexico Public Education Department. (2006, December).  Response to Intervention: A systematic process to increase learning outcomes for all students.  (A guidance document for New Mexico schools.).

National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE).  (2006) Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation (George Batche, G. Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., Reschly, D. J., Schrag, J., Tilly, W. D.).

National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) What Is Response to Intervention?  www.ncld.org/content/view/1221/398/ (October 22, 2007).

National Center on Response to Intervention, http://www.rti4success.org/ (December 2007).

National Institute for Literacy, Partnership for Reading (NLRP).  (2005, Fall).  What is Scientifically Based Research?

National Mathematics Advisory Panel. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008.  www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/index.html.

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD).  (2007, Winter).  SLD and RtI, Tools for Change.

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. What is school-wide PBS?: Illinois PBIS Network (May 2008)

Oregon Department of Education, Office of Student Learning and Partnership. (2005, September) Identification of Students with Learning Disabilities, Oregon Response to Intervention.

Ortiz, A.A., Robertson, P., & Wilkinson, C.  (June, 2009).  Bilingual exceptional students:  Early intervention, referral, and assessment (BESt ERA) model.  Lecture and handouts presented at Training Seminar in Austin, TX.

Ortiz, M. F. (Ed). (1998). Literacy instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students.  Newark, DE:  International Reading Association.

Rhodes, R. L., Ochoa, S. H. & Ortiz, S. O. (2005).  Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students. NY: Guilford.

Rivera, M. O., Moughamian, A. C., Lesaux, N. K., & Francis, D. J. (2008). Language and reading interventions for English language learners and English language learners with disabilities. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. (Available online at http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Lang and Rdng Interventions for ELLs and ELLs with Disabilities.pdf .

Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (1995).  Multicultural students with special language needs: Practical strategies for assessment and intervention. Oceanside, CA: Academic Communication Associates.

Ruiz, N.  (May, 1991).  Effective instruction for language minority children with mild disabilities.  ERIC document # ED 333621.

Ruiz, N. (October, 1989).  An optimal learning environment for Rosemary.  Exceptional Children, 56, 2.

Scanlon, D.M., Anderson, K.L. and Sweeney, J.M. (2010). Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties, The Interactive Strategies Approach. Guilford Press

Scanlon, D.M. and Sweeney, J.M. (2008).Response to Intervention: An Overview Educator’s Voice, 1, 16-29.

Secada, W.G. (1983).  The Educational Background of Limited English Proficient Students:  Implications for the Arithmetic Classroom.  Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education.  ERIC document # ED237318.

Secada, W.G. & De La Cruz, Y.  (1996).  Teaching Mathematics for Understanding to Bilingual Students.  ERIC document # ED 393646.

Secada W.G. (1995).  Social and critical dimensions for equity in math education.  In E. Fennena, T.P. Carpenter, & S.J. Lamiss (Eds.), Diversity, Equity, and Cognitive Research (pp. 17-54). National Center for Research in Mathematical Science Education.

Shapiro, E. (2009) The two models of RTI: Standard protocol and problem solving. Retrieved May, 2010 from: http://www.doe,virginia.gov/VDOE/studentsVCS/RTI.

Slavin, R.E., & Chung, A. (2003). Effective reading programs for English language learners: A best evidence synthesis. Paper developed for U.S. Department of Education.

Soltero, S.W. (2004). Dual language:  Teaching and learning in two languages. Boston, MA:  Allyn and Bacon.

Strategies to achieve reading success. (2003). North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.

Thousand, J.S., Villa, R.A. & Nevin A.N. (2007). Differentiating instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Tilly, W. D. (2003). How many Tiers are needed for Successful Precaution and Early Identification? Heartland Area Educational Agency’s Evolution from Four to Three Tiers. Paper Presented at the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities Responsiveness-to-Intervention Symposium, Kansas City, MO.

Tomlinson, C.A. (1991). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Witt, J. (2007). Project Steep (System to Enhance Educational Performance).  www.joewitt.org/steep.html (October 22, 2007).

Wright, J. (2007).  RTI Wire.  www.jimwrightonline.com/php/rti/rti_wire.php (October 22, 2007)

Examples and Case Studies

For school examples that address the RtI components cited in this document, see the link from NRCLD Learning Disabilities Resource Kit (August, 2006) at: http://www.nrcld.org/rti_manual/pages/RTIManualSection5.pdf

For student examples of progress monitoring charts, demonstrating responsiveness and nonresponsiveness, see NRCLD (Winter, 2007):

Additional Websites:

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), part of the project entitled the “National Center for Accessible Curriculum (NCAC)” n article regarding Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Differentiated Instruction (DI) –

Center on Instruction – http://www.centeroninstruction.org/

Colorín Colorado (Reading Rockets for second language learners) –

Connecticut Department of Education “Response to Intervention” bibliography –

Multicultural and Diverse Learners (MCDL) – http://www.esc1.net/ – Responding Educationally to all Learners (REAL)

National Association of State Directors of Special Education –

National Center on Student Progress Monitoring – http://www.studentprogress.org/

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA) –

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities –

National RtI Center (federally funded project) – http://www.rti4success.org/

New York State Reading Resource Center - http://nysrrc.monroe.edu/

New York State RtI Technical Assistance Center – http://www.nysrti.org/

New York State Education Department – Office of Bilingual Education and Foreign Language Studies – https://www.p12.nysed.gov/biling/bilinged/publications.html

  • The teaching of language arts to LEP/ELLs:  A resource guide for all teachers
  • The teaching of language arts to LEP/ELLs:  Learning standards for ESL
  • The teaching of language arts to LEP/ELLs:  Learning standards for native language arts (NLA)

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. http://www.pbis.org/

Reading Rockets – http://readingrockets.org/research/teaching – Reading Research & Reports

Rhode Island College supported by the Rhode Island Department of Education –

U.S. Department of Education website to a variety of resources, including RtI and its relationship to LD determination –



Last Updated: November 9, 2010