Special Education

Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guides for  Behavioral Supports and Interventions - Positive Behavioral Systems

The State Education Department
The University of the State of New York
Albany, NY 12234

Office of Special Education

Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guides for Behavioral Supports and Interventions - PDF PDF Document (940 KB)

  1. School-Wide Positive Behavioral Systems (Updated March 2011)
  2. Classroom Management  (Updated November 2011)
  3. Small Group Interventions (SGI) for At-Risk Students (Updated November 2011)
  4. Intensive Individualized Behavioral Interventions (Updated October 2010)

The Regional Special Education Technical Assistance Support Centers (RSE-TASC) network is one of the Office of Special Education's primary resources for school improvement in New York State. This Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guide is one of a series that has been developed for use by the RSE-TASC network to guide their work in assessment of programs and provision of professional development, support and technical assistance to districts and schools to improve results for students with disabilities.

The Guides are intended to be used to support a process that includes:

  • Assessing the quality of a school district’s instructional programs and practices in the areas of literacy, behavioral supports and interventions; and delivery of special education services;
  • Determining priority need areas; and
  • Prescribing and planning activities to change practices and improve outcomes for students with disabilities.

The New York State Education Department (NYSED) gratefully acknowledges participation of the following individuals in the development of these documents:

Current Behavior Work Group

Linda Brown, Mid-State RSE-TASC
Rebecca DeBottis, Mid-South RSE-TASC
Jose Flores, Western RSE-TASC
Luis Laviena, New York City RSE-TASC
Brian Orzell, Mid-Hudson RSE-TASC
Helena Rodriguez, New York City RSE-TASC
Hildreth Rose, Mid-South RSE-TASC
Patti Slobogin, Lower Hudson RSE-TASC
Patti Simonds, Capital District RSE-TASC

Past Behavior Work Group

Linda Blankenhorn – SETRC, Rochester City Schools
William Bulman – NYSED/Office of Special Education
Alison Conners – NYSED/Office of Special Education
Michael Friga – SETRC, Tompkins Seneca Tioga BOCES
Luis Laviena, New York City RSE-TASC
Rob Mark, SETRC, Hamilton Fulton Montgomery BOCES
Brian Orzell, Mid-Hudson RSE-TASC
Hildreth Rose, Mid-South RSE-TASC
Deb Sandler, SETRC, New York City DOE
Wilma Jozwiak, NYS Statewide S3TAIR Activities, Capital Region BOCES

James P. DeLorenzo, Statewide Coordinator for Special Education, NYSED

Patricia J. Geary, Coordinator, Special Education Policy and Professional Development, NYSED

This document contains hypertext links or pointers to information created and maintained by other public and private organizations. These links and pointers are provided for the user's convenience. The State Education Department does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. Further, the inclusion of links or pointers to particular items in hypertext is not intended to reflect their importance, nor is it intended to endorse any views expressed, or products or services offered, on these outside sites, or the organizations sponsoring the sites.

The State Education Department grants permission to New York State public schools, approved private schools and nonprofit organizations to copy this for use as a review and quality improvement guide. This material may not otherwise be reproduced in any form or by any means or modified without the written permission of the New York State Education Department. For further information, contact the Office of Special Education at (518) 473-2878 or write to that office at 89 Washington Avenue, Room 309, Albany, New York 12234.

Quality Indicator Review and Resource Guide Behavior:  School-Wide Positive Behavioral Systems

Definition:  School-wide positive behavioral supports is a systems approach to discipline that emphasizes prevention and data-based decision-making to both reduce problem behavior and improve academic performance. While engaging instruction is the most effective "behavioral intervention," every school also needs an effective discipline system.

Key Question:

Does the school have a consistent and comprehensive school-wide behavioral program in place?

Indicator: School-Wide Discipline System

Quality Indicator Description/Look Fors: Comments/Evidence

Component 1:  School-Based Team

There is a school-based team with oversight responsibility for the school’s discipline system.
  • School-based leadership team is identified and coordinates efforts with existing teams in school.
  • Team represents all stakeholders--all. levels of staff, general & special education, parent/student.
  • School administrator is an active member.
  • School team receives on-going training/TA in school-wide behavioral support systems.
  • School team has meetings at least monthly.
  • School team evaluates program implementation annually.
  • School team has a 3-5 year action plan, reviewed annually.
Team roster, meeting minutes, training schedule, evaluation report, written action plan
Sample Team Meeting Templateexternal link
Sample Team Rolesexternal link
Sample Team Meeting Scheduleexternal link
Sample School Administrator Responsibilitiesexternal link
Administrator Tips for Supporting PBIS Teamsexternal link
Team Implementation Checklistexternal link for evaluation of school-wide program and for action planning
Benchmarks of Qualityexternal link:  Annual evaluation of implementation for schools
Analysis Tool for Building Level PBIS Teamexternal link:  Annual PBIS Implementation Tool
EBS Surveyexternal link: Effective Behavior Support Staff Survey of PBIS program
SET v.2external link:  School-wide Evaluation Tool, a standardized program evaluation tool that can be administered by a trained consultant

Component 2:  Political Support & Visibility at School level

The school-wide discipline system is supported by and is a priority for school staff.
  • At least 80% of staff support and participate in process and see it as directly relevant to their work.
  • School improvement plan lists improving behavior support systems as a priority.
  • Schoolwide behavior policy statement has been developed with and endorsed by building administrator and shared with staff.
  • Behavior support efforts are coordinated with other schoolwide efforts.
  • School received benefits of district funding and support for behavioral support systems.
Staff survey, school improvement plan, school code of conduct, team membership, funding records, staffing/time allocations
Sample Superintendents Endorsement of School-wide PBIS Programexternal link
Tool for Coordinating School-wide Committeesexternal link
School Safety Surveyexternal link: Tool to assess needs for school safety & crisis planning
PBIS Overviewexternal link Presentation to Establish Staff Buy-In Sample Staff Handbook including PBIS – Elementaryexternal link, Middleexternal link, Elementary/Middleexternal link

Component 3: School-Wide Behavioral Expectations

The school has a limited number of expectations for student behavior which are positively stated.
  • 3-5 school-wide behavior expectations are defined.
  • Behavior expectations are documented.
  • Expectations are posted throughout building.
  • Expectations for various classroom and non-classroom settings are defined in terms of observable student behavior.
  • Those definitions of behavior are positively stated, observable and measurable.
  • Those definitions of behavior respect the cultural norms within the community.
Team documents, school code of conduct, posters in school, expectations Matrix
Sample matrices— Elementaryexternal link, Middle Schoolexternal link, High Schoolexternal link
Sample posters – Elementaryexternal link Middle/High Schoolexternal link

Component 4: Instruction in Behavior

All students are taught behavioral expectations.
  • Lesson plans for expectations are developed.
  • Schoolwide behavioral expectations have been taught directly & formally to all students.
  • Students and staff know expectations
  • Lessons are re-taught as needed based on analysis of data.
Lesson plans, schedule for teaching, Schoolwide Evaluation Tool (SET) results/ Survey
Sample lesson plans— Elementaryexternal link (respect), Middle Schoolexternal link (voice level), High Schoolexternal link (two feet in the door)
Multiple examples of lesson plans: Maryland PBISexternal link
Sample Outline for Creating Lesson Plansexternal link
PBIS Team Roles in Lesson Planningexternal link
PowerPoint on Teaching Behavioral Expectationsexternal link

Component 5: School-Wide Acknowledgement System

Students are acknowledged for demonstrating expected behaviors.
  • Acknowledgement system is defined and in place.
  • Staff use active monitoring strategies to “catch” students demonstrating positive behaviors.
  • All staff acknowledge students for positive behavior.
  • Students are acknowledged more frequently for positive behavior than for infractions (with a goal of a 4:1 ratio).
  • Acknowledgements are appropriate for the culture of the community served by the school.
  • A system for collecting data on acknowledgements is in place.
Acknowledgement menu, data report, observation, school records
Sample Elementary School Acknowledgement Systemexternal link
Pre-K–12 Acknowledgement Listexternal link
Sample Ticketsexternal link
Positive Peer Reportingexternal link:  Evidence-based practice for increasing student-to-student acknowledgements

Component 6:  Consistent Behavioral Consequences

Consistent consequences are applied for inappropriate behavior across staff and settings.
  • Consequences for behavioral infractions are clearly defined and documented.
  • Consequences are appropriate for the entire community and applied proportionately.
  • There is clarity about behavior handled in the classroom and behavior handled by administration.
  • All staff and students know consequences.
  • System for collecting data on infractions is in place.
  • Frequently broken rules are re-taught.
Teacher handbook, student handbook, interview/survey, school reports, lesson plans, discipline data
Defining consequences:  Example 1external link, Example 2external link
Sample Chart Defining Major/Minor Incidents: Elementaryexternal link, Middle/Highexternal link
See Consequences Flow Chartexternal link page 7 in this Handbook defining teacher and administrator-managed behavior

Component 7:  Data Collection and Analysis

Data on student behavior are collected and used to inform and improve the behavioral system.
  • Office discipline referral form collects all necessary information.
  • Office discipline data are gathered routinely and entered into database.
  • Team summarizes existing discipline data monthly and reports to staff, including suspension data.
  • Strengths and areas of focus are identified monthly based on data.
  • Discipline data are used to make decisions and action plans.
  • Staff, family and student perception data are also reviewed on an on-going basis.
Discipline referral form, school data reports, monthly data reports, team minutes, action plans
Sample Office Discipline Referral (ODR) Formexternal link
Monthly Data Analysis Guideexternal link: Example of a tool for the team to use to guide monthly discussion of discipline data
Monthly Data Analysis Guide for Office Discipline Referralsexternal link(ODRs)
Sample Student Surveyexternal link
Sample Parent Surveyexternal link

Component 8: On-going staff development

All staff understand and implement the school-wide discipline system with fidelity.
  • School staff are trained in schoolwide plan.
  • New personnel are oriented to schoolwide plan.
  • Technical assistance is provided to teachers about components of plan.
  • Re-training provided as needed to staff on plan components.
  • Reports are made regularly to staff on student data.
  • Staff are regularly acknowledged for their implementation of the plan.
  • Professional development includes training on selecting expectations and acknowledgements that are appropriate for the entire school community.
Training enrollment records, coach report, team action plan, faculty meeting minutes, staff surveys, teacher acknowledgement menu, training materials
Training Modules from Florida Positive Behavior Supports Siteexternal link
Training Videosexternal link from PBIS.org
K-12 PBIS Resourcesexternal link from PBIS.org
Training Resourcesexternal link from Illinois PBIS Network

Key Question:

Does the district support the school in effective implementation of its positive discipline system?

Indicator: District Level Support

Quality Indicator Description/Look Fors: Comments/Evidence

Component 1:   District-Level Leadership Team

Schools receive support at the district level in implementing positive school-wide discipline systems.
  • District leadership team is identified.
  • District team represents range of stakeholders, both general & special education.
  • District-level administrators are active members.
  • District team is trained; i.e., can identify critical elements of positive behavioral supports and has reviewed related research.
  • District team meets at least biannually and coordinates efforts between schools.
  • District team has a 3-5 year district action plan that addresses behavior.
Team roster, attendance, meeting minutes, training dates, written action plan
District Planning Document:  Sample 1 external link,Sample 2external link
PowerPoint on Action Planning for District Leadershipexternal link
OSEP Implementer’s Blueprint and Self-Assessmentexternal link

Component 2:  Political Support & Visibility at District level

The school community is aware of and supports the school’s discipline system.
  • District lists improving behavior support systems as a priority and provides funding.
  • Parents are informed about district behavior plan and district ensures parents are welcomed in all schoolwide planning.
  • Behavior data are reported regularly to school Board.
  • Activities and accomplishments of behavior plan are shared with larger community.
District strategic plan/ PDP, PTA minutes/ agenda, district newsletter, Board minutes, newspaper articles
Family Involvement Checklistexternal link:  Checklist developed by NYS PBIS Initiative
Family Inventory Strength Based Assessmentexternal link:  Staff survey to assess school, family and community partnerships
NYS PBIS Family Surveyexternal link:  Survey of family knowledge of and involvement in school’s PBIS initiative
Sample PBIS Team Newsletterexternal link
School webpages highlighting PBIS System:  Sample 1external link, Sample 2external link Sample Parent Outreach Brochureexternal link

Component 3:   Professional Development & Technical Assistance

The district provides professional development and technical assistance to support schools. 
  • District has established trainers to build and sustain behavioral support practices in schools.
  • Training is provided for current and new district team members.
  • External coach(es) (expert available to all school-based teams) is identified.
  • Internal coaches (school team leaders) meet at least twice a year to discuss district goals and coordinate efforts.
  • Parents receive training.
  • A set of materials has been developed to sustain plan.
Trainer agreements, training schedule, sign-ins, PDP/ QIP, coach meeting minutes, handbook/materials
PBIS Coaching Resources external link 
PowerPoint on Family and School Partnershipsexternal link for PBIS
District PBIS Team Manualexternal link (includes training modules)
Sample Behavioral Matrix for homeexternal link
Component 4:  District Program Evaluation
The district evaluates and helps to improve school-based systems of discipline.
  • Baseline data are collected in first year of implementation.
  • Evaluation process is in place for assessing extent to which schoolwide behavior support plans are implemented.
  • Impact of plan on student outcomes is assessed annually.
  • Impact of plan on staff time is assessed annually.
  • Action plan is reviewed annually for extent of implementation.
VADIR report, suspension/dropout records program evaluation report, district strategic plan
Evaluation Templateexternal link:  Guidelines for a district to develop own evaluation, with lists of possible tools
OSEP Implementer’s Blueprint and Self-Assessmentexternal link

Key Question:

Do classroom behavioral support systems relate directly to the school-wide behavioral support system?  Do non-classroom behavioral support systems relate directly to the school-wide behavioral system? (See Office of Special Education Quality Indicator on Classroom Management for more in-depth indicators)

Indicator: Behavior Management

Quality Indicator Description/Look Fors: Comments/Evidence

Component 1:  Classroom Management

Effective classroom management strategies are used in all classrooms.
  • Classroom behavioral expectations are aligned with school-wide behavioral expectations.
  • Classroom behavioral expectations are explicitly taught, practiced and re-taught in all classrooms.
  • Consequences for problem behavior in the classroom are consistent with school-wide plan.
  • Students in every classroom receive a greater number of positive than negative acknowledgements.
  • Students in every classroom are engaged in meaningful academic work.
  • As teachers develop their routines, they are respectful of the impact their routines have on other classrooms.
Posters of class rules, teacher/student interview, lesson plans, student interviews, office discipline referral forms, observations
For Tools & Resources, see Quality Indicator on Classroom Management.

Component 2:  Non-Classroom Behavioral Supports

Effective management strategies are used in non-classroom settings.
  • Behavioral expectations for hallways, playgrounds, buses, cafeteria, bathrooms & other non-classroom settings are aligned with school-wide behavioral expectations.
  • Behavioral expectations for each setting have been explicitly taught, practiced and re-taught when needed.
  • Consequences for problem behavior in these settings are consistent with school-wide plan.
  • Students receive a greater number of positive than negative acknowledgements in these settings.
  • Paraprofessionals and other staff responsible for these settings have been trained in the school-wide plan.
  • Paraprofessionals and other staff responsible for these settings receive data on plan implementation.
Posters in each setting, lesson plans, office discipline referral forms, student/staff interviews, training schedule, sign-ins, staff meeting minutes
Sample plans for different non-classroom settings:  busexternal link, hallwayexternal link, bathroomexternal link, playgroundexternal link
Article on use of PBIS in lunchroomexternal link

Key Question:

Does the school have a consistent, high quality small group intervention for at risk students? Is there a consistent and comprehensive system for developing and implementing interventions for students with significant individualized behavioral support needs? (See Office of Special Education Quality Indicators on Targeted Small Group Behavioral Interventions and on Intensive Individualized Behavioral Interventions for more in-depth indicators)

Indicator:  Interventions for At-Risk Students

Quality Indicator Description/Look Fors: Comments/Evidence

Component 1:  High Quality Small Group Intervention

Evidence-based small group interventions for behaviorally at-risk students are in place.
  • There is a consistent and timely problem-solving process in place to identify students for small group intervention.
  • A team develops, monitors, and assists with problem-solving process and implementation of targeted interventions.
  • School has evidence-based practices for small group interventions.
  • Targeted strategies build on school-wide practices (e.g. align with school-wide expectations, and acknowledgement and consequences systems).
  • The team conducts monthly updates on targeted interventions, implementation and student progress.
At risk criteria policies, monitors are identified, training dates, written description of secondary strategies, written action plan
For Tools & Resources, see Quality Indicator on Targeted Small Group Behavioral Interventions.
Powerpoint for Developing Tier 2 Interventionsexternal linkwith links to specific small group interventions
Sample Plan for Tier 2 Interventions: Tier 2 Action Planning Sheetexternal link, Small Group Support Inventoryexternal linkSmall Group Planning Sheetexternal link

Component 2:  Intensive Individualized Behavioral Interventions

Evidence-based intensive individualized interventions for students with chronic and severe behavioral difficulties are in place.
  • A team maintains and reviews records of student behavior in order to identify chronic behavior concerns and works with community agencies and families to provide wraparound services.
  • Support teams are available to staff when concerns arise regarding student behavior.
  • Quality functional behavior assessments are conducted for all students in need of an individualized behavior plan.
  • Individualized behavior plans are developed based on functional behavior assessments and implemented with fidelity across all school settings.
  • Individualized assessment and intervention strategies build on school-wide practices.
Behavioral incident reports, team roster, staff memos, FBAs, BIPs & teacher reports, anecdotal records
For Tools & Resources, see Quality Indicator on Intensive Individualized Behavioral Interventions. Framework for district planning for tertiary interventionsexternal link

Selected Bibliography

Albin, R.W., Dunlap, G., & Lucyshyn, J.M. (2002). Collaborative research with families on positive behavior support. In J. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & Albin, R.W. (Eds), Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts (pp. 373-389). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.  How to apply positive behavioral systems principles in families.

Anderson, C. M., and Kincaid, D. (2005).  Applying Behavior Analysis to School Violence and Discipline Problems: Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supportexternal link—(abstract).  The Behavior Analyst, 28 (1).

Bohanon-Edmonson, H., Flannery, K.B., Eber, L. & Sugai, G. (2005). Positive Behavior Support in High Schools: Monograph from the 2004 Illinois High School Forum of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supportsexternal link.  Summary of findings from a roundtable on implementation of positive behavioral systems in high schools (118 pgs).

Bohanon, H., Fenning, P., Carney, K., Minnis-Kim, M.J., Anderson-Harris, S., Moroz, K.B., Hicks, K.J., Kaspar, B., Culos, C., Sailor, W., & Spigott, T.D.  (2006).  Schoolwide application of Positive Behavior Support in an urban high school: A case studyexternal link (abstract).  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), pp. 131-145.  After somewhat dry start on research methodology, touches on the trickier parts of positive behavioral systems in an urban setting with older students.

Brophy, J.E. (1986a). Classroom management techniques. Education and Urban Society, 18(2), 182-194.  Literature review identifying components of effective classroom management.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivationexternal link: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-423.  Meta-analysis showing that providing incentives does not decrease intrinsic motivation of students.

Clonan, S.M., McDougal, J.L., Clark, K. & Davison, S. (2007).  Use of office discipline referrals in school-wide decision making:  A practical exampleexternal link(abstract).  Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), pp. 19-27.  Provides overview of PBIS and then focuses on how office discipline data can be used with emphasis on role of school psychologist.

Clonan, S.M., Lopez, F., Rymarchyk, G., & Davison, S.  (2004?).  School-wide positive behavior support:  Implementation and evaluation at two urban elementary schools.  Persistently Safe Schools: The National Conference of the HAMILTON FISH INSTITUTE ON SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY VIOLENCE.  Evaluation of positive behavioral systems at two urban elementary schools.

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R., & Lee, Y. (1997). Effect of active supervision and precorrection on transition behaviors of elementary students. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 344-363.  Focuses on two aspects of the positive behavioral systems framework—monitoring and pre-teaching behavior to prevent problems.

Colvin, G. (2007). 7 steps for developing a proactive schoolwide discipline plan: A guide for principals and leadership teams.  California: Sage Publications.  A guidebook with practical checklists and user-friendly forms.

Dwyer, K.P. (2002). Tools for building safe, effective schools. In Interventions For Academic and Behavior Problems II:  Preventive and Remedial Approaches, Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., Stoner, G. (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.

Ford, L & Amaral, D. (2006)  Research on Parent Involvement:  Where We’ve Been and Where We Need to Goexternal link

Report from British Columbia Educational Leadership Research. Literature review.

Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Horner, R, Bounds, M. & Dunlap, G.  (2006).  Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide positive behavior support:  Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities.external link  Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), pp. 4-17.  Positive behavioral systems as tool to develop fully inclusive schools with good descriptions of the 3 tiers of positive behavioral systems. 

Hintze, J.M., Volpe, R.J. & Shapiro, E.S. (2008). Best practices in the systematic direct observation of student behavior.  In Best Practices in School Psychology V, Thomas, A. and Grimes, J. (eds.).  Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.  Describes research-based tools for monitoring student behavior.

Homer, R. H., Sugai, G., Eber, L., Phillips, D., & Lewandowski (2004). Illinois Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Project: 2002-2003 progress report. Chicago, IL: ISBE EBD/PBIS Network.  Evaluation of statewide implementation of PBIS in Illinois.

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Horner, H. F. (2000). A school-wide approach to student disciplineexternal link (abstract). The School Administrator, 2(57), 20-23.  Includes a discussion of the importance of administrator involvement.

Horner R.H., Todd A.W., Lewis-Palmer T., Irvin L.K., Sugai G. & Boland J.B.  (2003).  The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), pp. 3-12.  Description of the SET, a tool for formal evaluations of positive behavioral systems in a school.

Irvin, L.K., Tobin, T.J, Sprague, J.R., Sugai, G., & Vincent, C.G. (2004). Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventionsexternal link (abstract). Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(3), 131-147.  Emphasizes importance of data collection/analysis.

Johns, S.K., Patrick, J.A. & Rutherford, K.J. (2008) Best practices in district-wide positive behavior support implementation. In Best Practices in School Psychology V, Thomas, A. and Grimes, J. (eds.).  Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.

Kant, A. R. & March, R.E. (2004), Effective strategies for addressing challenging behavior in schoolsexternal link. Journal of Scholarship and Practice, 1(3), 3-6.  Overview of a 6-step process for implementing PBIS.

Leaf, P.J., Keys, S.G., Barrett, S., & McKenna, M.  (2004).  Building capacity for universal prevention through state-nonprofit-university-school system partnershipsexternal link.  Conference Proceedings from Persistently Safe Schools: The National Conference of the Hamiliton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence.  Description of Maryland state PBIS collaboration with review of literature, description of critical elements, an example of a schedule for a professional development program, and program outcomes.

Lewis, T.J. & Sugai, G.  (1999).  Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide managementexternal link (abstract).  Focus on Exceptional Children.  Includes research review, but most useful part is middle section on non-classroom settings, with good examples of expectations and implementation steps in hallway, playground, assemblies and cafeteria.

Luiselli, J.K., Putnam, R.F., Handler, M.W., & Feinberg, A.B. (2005). Whole-school positive behavior support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performanceexternal link (abstract). Educational Psychology, 25 (2/3), 183-198.  Overview of all components of a school-wide behavior support system.

McKevitt, B.C. & Braaksma, A.D. (2008) Best practices in developing a positive behavior support system at the school level. In Best Practices in School Psychology V, Thomas, A. and Grimes, J. (eds.).  Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.  Good overview of research and practice.

Muscott, H.S., Mann, E., Benjamin, T.B., & Gately, S. (2004).  Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in New Hampshire: Preliminary Results of a Statewide System for Implementing Schoolwide Discipline Practicesexternal link.  Education and Treatment of Children, 27(4).   Evaluation of the PBIS program implemented in NH schools statewide.

Netzel, D.M. & Eber, L.  (2003).  Shifting from reactive to proactive discipline in an urban school district:  A change of focus through PBIS implementationexternal link (abstract).  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), pp. 71-79.  Case study of an urban school district’s implementation of PBIS with some clear specific examples of steps taken.

Oswald, K., Safran, S., & Johanson, G. (2005). Preventing trouble: Making schools safer using positive behavior supports. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(3), 265-278.  Overall description of all components of PBIS program

Scott, T.M. & Martinek, G.  (2006).  Coaching positive behavior support in school settings:  Tactics and data-based decision makingexternal link (abstract).  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), pp. 165-173.  Good general description of positive behavioral systems and good specific description of one way a coach might function.

Scott, T.M., Nelson, C.M. & Liaupsin, C.J.  (2001).  Effective instruction:  The forgotten component in preventing school violenceexternal link (abstract).  Education and Treatment of Children, 24(3), pp 309-322.  Review of literature on effect of improving instruction on school violence.

Skiba, R.J.  (2000).  Zero tolerance, zero evidence: An analysis of school disciplinary practiceexternal link. Policy Research Report #SRS2,  Indiana Education Policy Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.  Research report on lack of evidence on effectiveness of zero tolerance policies.

Skiba, R.J., Michale, R.S., & Nardo, A.C.  (2000).  Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishmentexternal link.  Policy Research Report #SRS,  Indiana Education Policy Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.  Explores factors contributing to disproportionate representation of minority students in school discipline procedures.

Smallwood, D.  (2003).  Defusing violent behavior in young children:  An ounce of prevention:  Information for School Principalsexternal link.  National Association of School Psychologist Handout.  Short, clear overview of schoolwide and individual interventions for elementary schools.

Sprick, R.S., Borgmeier, C. and Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondary schools. In Interventions For Academic and Behavior Problems II:  Preventive and Remedial Approaches.  Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., Stoner, G. (Eds.). Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.  Specific focus on evidence-based practices in secondary schools.

Stollar, S.A., Schaeffer, K.R., Skelton, S.M., Stine, K.C., Lateer-Huhn, A. & Poth, R.L. (2008) Best practices in professional development: An integrated three-tier model of academic and behavior supports. In Best Practices in School Psychology V, Thomas, A. and Grimes, J. (eds.).  Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications. 

Sugai, G. (2009). School-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Response to Intervention. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from RTI Action Network: http://www.rtinetwork.org/Learn/Behavior/ar/SchoolwideBehaviorexternal link

Sugai, G., Sprague, J. R., Horner, R. H., & Walker, H. M. (2000). Preventing school violence: The use of office discipline referrals to assess and monitor school-wide discipline interventionsexternal link. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 94-101. Emphasizes importance of data collection/analysis.

Taylor-Greene, S.J., & Kartub, D.T (2000). Durable implementation of school-wide behavior support: The high five program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 233-235.  Description of a specific PBIS program in an elementary school with 5 expectations that had great results in ODRs for 5 years running.

Tobin, T. J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2002). School-wide and individualized effective behavior support:  An explanation and an exampleexternal link (pgs 51-75 of this 118 page document).  Behavior Analyst Today, 3, pp., 1-7Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 82-94.  Relates positive behavioral systems (EBS) to individualized student interventions.

Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline recordsexternal link (abstract). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 82-94. Emphasizes importance of data collection/analysis.

Utley, C.A., Kozleski, E., Smith, A. & Draper, I.L.  (2004).  Positive behavior support:  A proactive strategy for minimizing behavior problems in urban multicultural youthexternal link.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), pp. 196-207.  Describes how effective positive behavioral systems strategies can incorporate multicultural education. 

Walker, B., Cheney, D., Stage, S., Blum, C., & Horner, R.H. (2005). School-wide screening and positive behavior supports: Identifying and supporting students at risk for school failure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 194-204.

Recommended Websites:

  • www.pbis.orgexternal link:  Established by the Office of Special Education Programs, US Department of Education, this website has a wealth of resources, tools, videos and informational articles.  Register here for the PBIS Newsletter.
  • www.pbismaryland.orgexternal link:  Maryland’s PBIS website, with multiple examples of work from schools.
  • www.successfulschools.orgexternal link:  Resources and articles from Effective Educational Practices.
  • www.pbisillinois.orgexternal link:  Illinois’s PBIS website with tools, resources and PowerPoint presentations.
  • http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/index.aspexternal link:  Florida Positive Behavior Support Project
Last Updated: May 23, 2012